About amateur attempts at first aid.
7.000.000 deaths per year
These adverse health effects include asthma, cardiovascular problems, respiratory infections, lung cancer and mortality. Consider an air purifier.
Stay 1000 feet away from busy roads and freeways.
Air pollution is the greatest human health risk.
Broccoli or (best) broccoli sprouts to the rescue.
Aircraft cabin air is often unhealthy.
Alpha-ketoglutarate – in mice. It is not entirely lacking in normal physiology.
Aluminum intake can cause, among other things, neurotoxic developmental disorders as well as damage the kidneys, liver and bones.
avoid anti-anxiety and sleeping drugs (cannabis can help with both, and promotes longevity!)
any food cooked at high temperature is bad news
the rate of biological ageing can, within limits, be controlled
“The health risks associated with alcohol are massive.”
Hand-eye coordination is impaired by 20% when blood alcohol levels are as low as 0.015%.
More that 5 drinks per week → early death, binge drinking is especially bad.
Even light drinking → early death.
Alcohol and tobacco cause more deaths than all illegal drugs.
Heavy drinking changes genes associated with stress response and circadian rhythm.
Though cannabis can be a driving hazard, alcohol is way worse.
Not even one DROP of alcohol before driving.
alpha lipoic acid
avoid excessive carbohydrate consumption
chlorogenic acid – from coffee
dietary (not supplemental!) folic acid (from veggies, beans)
leucine in bad news – found in milk and meat
polyphenols from olives
time-restricted feeding (a form of fasting) – see the circadian section, below
dietary anthocyanins to slow lung function decline due to ageing
Antibiotics caution: Patients undergoing antibiotic treatment are especially susceptible to Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI) as the microorganisms that maintain a healthy gut are greatly damaged by the antibiotics.
Anticholinergic drugs were significantly associated with a composite of all-cause mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events in middle-age and older people. See this blog post for anticholinergic drug list and information.
antidepressant drug caution? SSRI antidepressants may be a longevity threat.
antimicrobial chemicals: triclosan and triclocarban, are bad news.
How to remove arsenic while cooking rice.
enjoy the arts, or create art
Aspartame is an artificial sweetener worth avoiding. The European Food Safety Authority’s Panel on Food Additives got it spectacularly wrong on Aspartame. See this Long-term Cognition post and this Obesity post.
Autophagy: it is smart: Autophagy is the body’s vacuum cleaner. Inhibition of autophagy compromises the longevity-promoting effects of caloric restriction, Sirtuin 1 activation, inhibition of insulin/insulin growth factor signaling, or the administration of rapamycin, resveratrol, or spermidine.
Senescent cells contribute to lowered NAD+ levels in aging.
Lifespan extension by dietary restriction, mTOR inhibition, AMPK up-regulation, and mitochondrial mutations, all require functional autophagy for lifespan extension.
Impaired autophagy hobbles the functioning of microglia.
Autophagy replaces the free radical theory of ageing.
Enhanced autophagy increased the life span of mice by as much as 35%.
The periodic activation of autophagy may contribute to proteome turnover and organelle homeostasis, which collectively define different metabolic phases and the transition among these temporal compartments in the tissue.
Autophagy helps activate stem cells.
Autophagy works via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMP).
Consuming any/all berries will promote autophagy.
AMPK – see aboveEpigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) stimulates autophagy in vascular endothelial cells. AMPK regulates autophagy directly by phosphorylating Ulk1 and this particular phosphorylation increases the kinase activity of Ulk1 and promotes autophagy.
Physiological concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate(BOH) induced proteolysis in cells.
CR works via decreased Acetyl-coenzyme A.
A robust circadian oscillation: Bmal1 null mice have dampened rhythm of autophagy gene expression and autophagy flux, suggesting that the clock gene exerts its effects on circadian autophagy.
Coffee induces autophagy in vivo (mice).
curcumin via the mTOR pathway
The eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), which responds to nutrient starvation.
Exercise may act as a senolytic “drug”.
green tea Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) stimulates autophagy in vascular endothelial cells
heat stroke (along with neural degeneration? um, no thanks!)
Hesperidin is senolytic. Hesperidin is a major flavonoid found in lemons and sweet oranges as well as in some other fruits and vegetables.
hormesis the same factors that promote cell death also encourage autophagy
see hormesis below
The circadian clock system relies upon the regulation of the critical pathways of autophagy, the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK). mTOR plays an important role in mediating nutrient regulation of autophagy. When nutrients are abundant, active mTOR physically interacts with the Ulk1-FIP200-Atg13 complex and phosphorylates Ulk1 and Atg13, thereby inhibiting Ulk1 kinase activity and autophagy induction.
transplanting just a few senescent cells into young mice made them age rapidly
Spermidine is produced in the microbiome by strains of bacteria that like the prebiotic fiber pectin. You can find pectin in fruits like oranges, grapefruits, apples, pears, and peaches and vegetables like carrots, peas, and green beans.
Sulforaphane induces autophagy through ERK activation in neuronal cells.
Walnuts, pecans, cranberries, raspberries, strawberries, grapes, peaches, and pomegranates provide ellagic acid → urolithin A → mitochondrial autophagy
Autophagy is inhibited by:
Autophagy is inhibited by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a central cell-growth regulator that integrates growth factor and nutrient signals.
While AMPK is activated under energy-low conditions, leading to autophagy induction, mTORC1 activity depends on diverse positive signals such as high energy levels, normoxia, amino acids, or growth factors that all result in the inhibition of autophagy.
See the Cancer Causative Stuff post on MTOR.
B vitamin reference
Only about 10 mcg of a 500 mcg oral supplement is actually absorbed in healthy people: excess B12 is a longevity hazard.
for the obese: bariatric surgery
On bereavement: exercise, meditation and sad music probably help some of these negative effects – and there can be positive effects – death may not be so bad. Avoidant grief is not likely to lead to a positive outcome.
A wonderful childrens’s book on death. Complement this particular masterpiece with Oliver Jeffers’s The Heart and the Bottle, which explores what we stand to lose when we deny difficult emotions like grief, and Michael Rosen’s Sad Book, a beautiful meditation on loss, illustrated by the great Sir Quentin Blake. For a grownup counterpart in the same spirit, see Elizabeth Alexander’s The Light of the World. For an Eastern perspective, see how a Zen master explained death and the life-force to a child.
all berries reduce DNA oxidative stress, though black raspberries top the list
bisphenol A caution, even in tiny amounts – see the Cancer Causative post
The BPA-substitute bisphenol S alters the transcription of genes related to endocrine, stress response and biotransformation pathways in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius. BPA is an ovarian, uterine, and prostate toxicant.
Both BPA and BPS caused genetic damage in lab mice. In multi-generational exposure studies, we found that BPS exhibits complex genotoxicity. Phthalates may be even more ubiquitous than previously thought.
botánicas can help with hispanic health care
minimize brain atrophy: keep blood sugar low, etc: see the long-term cognition posts
a quality breakfast
for child-bearing women: breast feeding
deep, diaphragmatic, breathing
see Osteoporosis for more on calcium
lack of calcium causes insidious damage that accumulates
Vitamin D is a marker for sun exposure. Some of these benefits may be due to a benefit of moderate sun exposure that we don’t yet know about.
CR induces profound effects on animals at all levels from the transcriptome to whole animal physiology and behavior. We are now seeing people from the Caloric Restriction Society reach their 70s and 80s in robust health.
Calorie restriction benefits where shown by the Calerie Study.
be hungry or eat a very low-starch diet (not recommended for long-term)
but greater benefits for less caloric intake
works via heat shock proteins
autophagy is induced in a wide variety of tissues in response to CR
autophagy may improve healthspan as well as longevityn
In the model organism, C. elegans, autophagy is required for the life-extending effects of dietary restriction.
reduces cell senescence
works via slowing age-related epigenetic changes
CR may act as epigenetic modifier to slow the aging process through histone modification, DNA methylation, and by modulating microRNA expression.
Epigenetic benefits extend across three generations.
epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation
CR induces dramatic changes of the skeletal muscle transcriptional profile that resemble those of younger individuals
CR can reverse age-associated miRNA alterations in skeletal muscle.
Increased β-HB has been reported to prevent or improve the symptoms of various age-associated diseases.
works via NAD(+)
works via neuropeptide Y
works via smaller nucleoli
works via overriding of a GPCR pathway involved in the perception of food
works via promoting peroxisome remodeling
works via fighting free radicals which cause oxidative stress
works via increasing ribosome repair and cellular recycling
works via SIRT1
works via slowing the rate of cell division
works via dramatically delaying the onset of increased transposon activity:
may reverse age-related autonomic decline
CR changes (in a good way) the way ageing happens: the increase in the inflammatory response during aging could be systematically repressed by caloric restriction.
especially when combined with:
causes mitochondrial biogenesis
dietary (not supplemental) polyphenols
dietary cystine is found primarily in meat, eggs, and fish
Human data on calorie restriction:
CR has been involuntarily shown effective in Cuba
CR has been shown effective in Okinawa
CR has been shown effective in a 2-year clinical trial of 218 nonobese people 21-51 yrs
CR has been shown effective in a clinical trial of 220 nonobese men and women
CR has been shown effective by members of the CR Society
CR works in humans due to lowered risk of age-related diseases, including cardiometabolic risk. Long-term CR in humans inhibits the IGF-1/insulin pathway. CR also induced dramatic changes of the skeletal muscle transcriptional profile that resemble those of younger individuals.
CR lowers oxidative stress in humans.
We also know that CR works in humans due to the universal effect of lower body temperature and lowered metabolic rate.
works in all species tested
exercise and capsaicin help
even works short-term
via preventing an enzyme, peroxiredoxin, from being inactivated
potentiated by polyphenols
Resveratrol is not an effective calorie restriction mimetic.
one concern about calorie restriction: a tendency to develop osteoporosis
Calorie restriction can lower white blood cell count – which only means less inflammation. This lowering of white blood cell count does not mean decreased resistance to infection. It does indicate less oxidative damage to DNA and RNA.
The anti-opioid effect of cannabis was shown in a study of 77 patients.
The anti-opioid effect of cannabis was shown in a study of 29 patients.
The anti-opioid effect of cannabis was shown in a study of 244 patients.
The anti-opioid effect of cannabis was shown in a study of 2245 patients.
The anti-opioid effect of cannabis was shown in a study of 66 patients.
The anti-opioid effect of cannabis was shown in a study of 67,422 patients.
The anti-opioid effect of cannabis was shown in a study of 125 patients
The anti-opioid effect of cannabis was shown in a study funded by the USA.
Medical marijuana laws decrease the accident hazard of opioid use/abuse.
States with medical cannabis laws had a 24.8% lower mean annual opioid overdose mortality rate compared with states without medical cannabis laws.
Colorado’s legalization of recreational cannabis sales and use resulted in a 0.7 deaths per month reduction in opioid-related deaths.
Among respondents that regularly used opioids, over three-quarters (76.7%) indicated that they reduced their use since they started medical cannabis (MC). This was significantly greater than the patients that reduced their use of antidepressants (37.6%) or alcohol (42.0%). Approximately two-thirds of patients decreased their use of anti-anxiety (71.8%), migraine (66.7%), and sleep (65.2%) medications.
If all states had allowed use of medical marijuana in 2014, the total Medicaid savings that year would in theory have been about $1 billion.
Commercial cannabis can have excessive pesticide residue.
Grow your own!
Cannabis versus multiple prescription drugs.
Unregulated cannabis vapor cartridges can be hazardous.
After-hours cannabis use has no impact on workplace performance.
Now if the US Government will only get out of the way…
Now if some anti marijuana crusaders will only stop lying.
Avoid canned fruit.
Canola oil ist he healthiest refined oil to cook with.
capsaicin – from spicy foods like chili peppers.
a low-carb diet – but don’t go hog-wild, or use meat/dairy to supply needed calories
animal-based (high saturated fat) low-carb diet caution
Minimize simple carbohydrates :increase dietary fibre intake and replace refined grains with whole grains. Eat a plant-based diet.
carbon monoxide detectors should be placed high on a wall or even ceiling
as a topical treatment to speed wound healing
cholesterol is important even for the oldest old