About amateur attempts at first aid.

Avoid high-dose vitamin A, beta-carotene, and vitamin E
n-acetyl-L-cysteine, more (probably conflicts with calorie restriction)

acrylamide messes with hormones in young women
Arc welding generates lots of nasty nanoparticles
Air freshener toxicity
Air pollution kills – especially seniors

7.000.000 deaths per year

These adverse health effects include asthma, cardiovascular problems, respiratory infections, lung cancer and mortality. Consider an air purifier.
Stay 1000 feet away from busy roads and freeways.
Air pollution is the greatest human health risk.
Broccoli or (best) broccoli sprouts to the rescue.
Aircraft cabin air is often unhealthy.

Alpha-ketoglutarate – in mice. It is not entirely lacking in normal physiology.
Aluminum intake can cause, among other things, neurotoxic developmental disorders as well as damage the kidneys, liver and bones.
avoid anti-anxiety and sleeping drugs (cannabis can help with both, and promotes longevity!)

avoid SSRI antidepressants (see the Depression post)
inhibit glycation, more, more, more, more (see avoiding Parkinson’s post for more information)

minimize advanced glycation end products (AGEs)

AGEs suppresses SIRT1.
AGEs produce chronic inflammation.
Serum Levels of Toxic AGEs might be a biomarker for lifestyle disease onset

any food cooked at high temperature is bad news

do not “act your age” – like these two guys

the rate of biological ageing can, within limits, be controlled

No alcohol at allever!

“The health risks associated with alcohol are massive.”

Hand-eye coordination is impaired by 20% when blood alcohol levels are as low as 0.015%.
More that 5 drinks per week → early death, binge drinking is especially bad.
Even light drinking → early death.
Alcohol and tobacco cause more deaths than all illegal drugs.
Heavy drinking changes genes associated with stress response and circadian rhythm.

Though cannabis can be a driving hazard, alcohol is way worse.

Not even one DROP of alcohol before driving.

Even a little alcohol impairs one’s sense of agency.
Don’t drive hungover – pears to the rescue?
Here is an informative graphic on alcohol.
Sleep deprivation and distracted driving is just as bad.

Too much alcohol → impaired breathing.
alpha carotene
AMPK activation, more, more, more

alpha lipoic acid
calorie restriction
avoid excessive carbohydrate consumption
chlorogenic acid – from coffee
exercise, more
dietary (not supplemental!) folic acid (from veggies, beans)
intermittent fasting
leucine in bad news – found in milk and meat
polyphenols from olives
rose hips
time-restricted feeding (a form of fasting) – see the circadian section, below

AMPK inhibits cAMP-regulated transcriptional co-activators (CRTCs).
AMPK promotes cell survival during acute energetic stress.
AMPK also promotes peroxisome remodeling

dietary anthocyanins to slow lung function decline due to ageing
Antibiotics caution: Patients undergoing antibiotic treatment are especially susceptible to Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI) as the microorganisms that maintain a healthy gut are greatly damaged by the antibiotics.

Anticholinergic drugs were significantly associated with a composite of all-cause mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events in middle-age and older people. See this blog post for anticholinergic drug list and information.
antidepressant drug caution? SSRI antidepressants may be a longevity threat.
antimicrobial chemicals: triclosan and triclocarban, are bad news.

antioxidant pills are of no value and may harm neuronal stem cells

pills can’t provide the synergy of combining quality foods
but do consume antioxidant foods with every meal
broccoli sprouts rule!
dietary antioxidants, including blueberries, vs. frailty

apples and pears – yum!
arsenic, even in tiny amounts, is bad news – see the Cancer Causative post

How to remove arsenic while cooking rice.

enjoy the arts, or create art
Aspartame is an artificial sweetener worth avoiding. The European Food Safety Authority’s Panel on Food Additives got it spectacularly wrong on Aspartame. See this Long-term Cognition post and this Obesity post.

astaxanthin, more – in mice
Those on the autistic spectrum have different care needs as they age. Those with late diagnosis sometimes believed that they were “bad people” prior to diagnosis.

Autophagy: it is smart: Autophagy is the body’s vacuum cleaner. Inhibition of autophagy compromises the longevity-promoting effects of caloric restriction, Sirtuin 1 activation, inhibition of insulin/insulin growth factor signaling, or the administration of rapamycin, resveratrol, or spermidine.

Autophagy is about removing senescent cells, harmful waste, and defective proteins.

Senescent cells, sometimes called zombie cells, cause ageing-related problems.
Senescent cells are associated with age-related blood clots.

Senescent cells contribute to lowered NAD+ levels in aging.

Lifespan extension by dietary restriction, mTOR inhibition, AMPK up-regulation, and mitochondrial mutations, all require functional autophagy for lifespan extension.
Impaired autophagy hobbles the functioning of microglia.
Autophagy replaces the free radical theory of ageing.
Enhanced autophagy increased the life span of mice by as much as 35%.

The periodic activation of autophagy may contribute to proteome turnover and organelle homeostasis, which collectively define different metabolic phases and the transition among these temporal compartments in the tissue.
Autophagy helps activate stem cells.
Autophagy works via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMP).
Consuming any/all berries will promote autophagy.
AMPK – see aboveEpigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) stimulates autophagy in vascular endothelial cells. AMPK regulates autophagy directly by phosphorylating Ulk1 and this particular phosphorylation increases the kinase activity of Ulk1 and promotes autophagy.

Physiological concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate(BOH) induced proteolysis in cells.


calorie restriction, more

CR works via decreased Acetyl-coenzyme A.


capsaicin from hot peppers

A robust circadian oscillation: Bmal1 null mice have dampened rhythm of autophagy gene expression and autophagy flux, suggesting that the clock gene exerts its effects on circadian autophagy.
Coffee induces autophagy in vivo (mice).
curcumin via the mTOR pathway

vitamin D

The eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), which responds to nutrient starvation.


Exercise promotes autophagy in peripheral tissues and the brain.
Especially effective is intense (vigorous or acute) exercise.

Exercise may act as a senolytic “drug”.

fasting, even short-term fasting
fisetin (in strawberries, apples, and persimmons) is a surprisingly effective senolytic.
fish oil → reduced factor CXDL-10 → macrophage autophagy → less inflammation

ginger via 6-Shogaol

green tea Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) stimulates autophagy in vascular endothelial cells

Heat shock proteins upregulate autophagy in bacteria. Heat shock proteins are upregulated by sulforaphane.

heat stroke (along with neural degeneration? um, no thanks!)

Hesperidin is senolytic. Hesperidin is a major flavonoid found in lemons and sweet oranges as well as in some other fruits and vegetables.
hormesis the same factors that promote cell death also encourage autophagy

see hormesis below

hydroxycitrate extracted from garcinia cambogia
vitamin K2

lithium, more

oleander (poisonous)

The circadian clock system relies upon the regulation of the critical pathways of autophagy, the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK). mTOR plays an important role in mediating nutrient regulation of autophagy. When nutrients are abundant, active mTOR physically interacts with the Ulk1-FIP200-Atg13 complex and phosphorylates Ulk1 and Atg13, thereby inhibiting Ulk1 kinase activity and autophagy induction.

autophagy via polyphenols may, one day treat cancer and neurodegeneration

pterostilbene (blueberries)
resveratrol, found in the skin of grapes, blueberries, raspberries, mulberries.
quercetina senolytic

transplanting just a few senescent cells into young mice made them age rapidly

injures via Activin A
so exercise
so avoid oxidative stress – see below

senolytics (see fisetin and quercetin, above) can improve function in old age



Spermidine is produced in the microbiome by strains of bacteria that like the prebiotic fiber pectin. You can find pectin in fruits like oranges, grapefruits, apples, pears, and peaches and vegetables like carrots, peas, and green beans.

Sulforaphane induces autophagy through ERK activation in neuronal cells.
Walnuts, pecans, cranberries, raspberries, strawberries, grapes, peaches, and pomegranates provide ellagic acid → urolithin A → mitochondrial autophagy

Autophagy is inhibited by:




Autophagy is inhibited by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a central cell-growth regulator that integrates growth factor and nutrient signals.

While AMPK is activated under energy-low conditions, leading to autophagy induction, mTORC1 activity depends on diverse positive signals such as high energy levels, normoxia, amino acids, or growth factors that all result in the inhibition of autophagy.

See the Cancer Causative Stuff post on MTOR.


balance training
B vitamin reference

Vitamin B12 daily at 50 micrograms per day, especially for those over 50. Vitamn B12 may also benefit carnivores.

Only about 10 mcg of a 500 mcg oral supplement is actually absorbed in healthy people: excess B12 is a longevity hazard.

for the obese: bariatric surgery

bone health concern, and complications are common


Beans: a superfood – eat like hispanics – or make black bean burgers. Consider the variety.
beetroot juice, or beetroot powder

avoid BCAAs: BCAA supplementation → lower tryptophan → shortened lifespan.
biofilms may be responsible for much chronic illness, chronic infections, and wounds

black tea  and catechins versus DNA damage
young blood may not be as beneficial as once thought

keep blood pressure < 120mm systolic, or < 115mm

control blood sugar, more, more, more

after-meal blood sugar and triglyceride spikes cause oxidative stress

and a long list of other dreadful maladies

On bereavement: exercise, meditation and sad music probably help some of these negative effects – and there can be positive effects – death may not be so bad. Avoidant grief is not likely to lead to a positive outcome.

A wonderful childrens’s book on death. Complement this particular masterpiece with Oliver Jeffers’s The Heart and the Bottle, which explores what we stand to lose when we deny difficult emotions like grief, and Michael Rosen’s Sad Book, a beautiful meditation on loss, illustrated by the great Sir Quentin Blake. For a grownup counterpart in the same spirit, see Elizabeth Alexander’s The Light of the World. For an Eastern perspective, see how a Zen master explained death and the life-force to a child.

all berries reduce DNA oxidative stress, though black raspberries top the list
bisphenol A caution, even in tiny amounts – see the Cancer Causative post
The BPA-substitute bisphenol S alters the transcription of genes related to endocrine, stress response and biotransformation pathways in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius. BPA is an ovarian, uterine, and prostate toxicant.
Both BPA and BPS caused genetic damage in lab mice. In multi-generational exposure studies, we found that BPS exhibits complex genotoxicity. Phthalates may be even more ubiquitous than previously thought.

better mobility for seniors
reduces oxidative stress affecting DNA
repairs damaged DNA
changes gene regulation
works via polyphenols (anthocyanins)

botánicas can help with hispanic health care
minimize brain atrophy: keep blood sugar low, etc: see the long-term cognition posts
a quality breakfast
for child-bearing women: breast feeding
deep, diaphragmatic, breathing

Take care of your brain.
minimize consumption of potassium bromate – found in commercial baked goods
eating healthy on a budget
vitamin C, more, more, → glutathione

best from diet, not supplements, and not more than 100 mg/day
actually 200mg, got easily from 5 servings of fruit and veggies per day, may be best

cadmium, at even low levels, is bad news – see the Cancer Causative post
calcium and vitamin D, more, more, moremore, more

see Osteoporosis for more on calcium
lack of calcium causes insidious damage that accumulates
Vitamin D is a marker for sun exposure. Some of these benefits may be due to a benefit of moderate sun exposure that we don’t yet know about.

calorie restriction the most proven thing for extending healthspan!,, more

CR induces profound effects on animals at all levels from the transcriptome to whole animal physiology and behavior. We are now seeing people from the Caloric Restriction Society reach their 70s and 80s in robust health.
Calorie restriction benefits where shown by the Calerie Study.
be hungry or eat a very low-starch diet (not recommended for long-term)

calorie restriction confers health benefits distinct from energy deficit by exercise
Every day, try to be hungry and out of breath. (David Sinclair)

maybe just 10% less calories? 5 days per month?

but greater benefits for less caloric intake

Exercise to maintain lean body mass and bone density despite CR.
works via the AMPK pathway

works via heat shock proteins

works via sirtuins, more, more, more

works via FGF-21, more

protein restriction, being cold, and exercise also activates FGF-21

prevents age-related loss of immunity and other goodies

works via FoxOs, more, more
works via adinopectin

works via autophagy

autophagy is induced in a wide variety of tissues in response to CR

autophagy may improve healthspan as well as longevityn

CR → autophagy → reduced cell senescence
Sarcosine is involved in CR-related autophagy.

In the model organism, C. elegans, autophagy is required for the life-extending effects of dietary restriction.

works via decreased entropy (there will never be a pill for that!)

works via enhanced cellular quality control

reduces cell senescence

works via slowing age-related epigenetic changes

CR may act as epigenetic modifier to slow the aging process through histone modification, DNA methylation, and by modulating microRNA expression.
Epigenetic benefits extend across three generations.
epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation

works via slowing age-related fibrosis (important)
works via lower chronic inflammation.
works via the insulin like growth factor (IGF-1)/insulin signaling pathway
works via the PI3K/AKT pathway

CR induces dramatic changes of the skeletal muscle transcriptional profile that resemble those of younger individuals
CR can reverse age-associated miRNA alterations in skeletal muscle.

works viaketones such as β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB)

Increased β-HB has been reported to prevent or improve the symptoms of various age-associated diseases.

works via preventing leaky gut. Calorie restriction improves intestinal stem cell and barrier function in old mice.
works via the bioactive signalling lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate

works via a lower night-time metabolic rate
works via preserving mitochondria
works via mitophagy
works via reduction of resting metobolic rate

works via Metallothionein
works via inhibiting mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)

works via NAD(+)

works via neuropeptide Y
works via smaller nucleoli
works via overriding of a GPCR pathway involved in the perception of food
works via promoting peroxisome remodeling
works via fighting free radicals which cause oxidative stress
works via increasing ribosome repair and cellular recycling
works via SIRT1

works via slowing the rate of cell division

works via small noncoding RNA molecules (sncRNAs)
works via telomere lengthening

works via dramatically delaying the onset of increased transposon activity:

prevents oxidative damage
beats other dietary interventions

may reverse age-related autonomic decline
CR changes (in a good way) the way ageing happens: the increase in the inflammatory response during aging could be systematically repressed by caloric restriction.

reduces body temperature (a good thing) and inflammation
enhances energy metabolism

especially when combined with:

exercise (of course!) – though that is not why it works

Exercise combined with calorie restriction is best.

low consumption of AGEs – see the Parkinson’s Prevention post on AGEs
healthy mitochondria – see the Energy post

causes mitochondrial biogenesis

dietary (not supplemental) polyphenols

mild protein restriction

low IGF-1

cysteine and methionine restriction (cystine is two cysteines)

dietary cystine is found primarily in meat, eggs, and fish

dietary cysteine is found in meat and dairy

methionine is found in meat, eggs, and fish

potentiated by, even required by, a robust circadian oscillation (see below)

Human data on calorie restriction:

CR has been involuntarily shown effective in Cuba
CR has been shown effective in Okinawa
CR has been shown effective in a 2-year clinical trial of 218 nonobese people 21-51 yrs
CR has been shown effective in a clinical trial of 220 nonobese men and women
CR has been shown effective by members of the CR Society
CR works in humans due to lowered risk of age-related diseases, including cardiometabolic risk. Long-term CR in humans inhibits the IGF-1/insulin pathway. CR also induced dramatic changes of the skeletal muscle transcriptional profile that resemble those of younger individuals.
CR lowers oxidative stress in humans.
We also know that CR works in humans due to the universal effect of lower body temperature and lowered metabolic rate.
works in all species tested
exercise and capsaicin help

even works short-term

even when started late in life, it acts quickly, it can grow telomeres!
calorie restriction continues to be important even with a healthy (plant-based) diet

rebuttal to the Wisconsin monkey study, more

works in monkeys, more, more, more, more, more
Moderate CR lowered the incidence of aging-related deaths in rhesus monkeys.

protects chromosomes

via preventing an enzyme, peroxiredoxin, from being inactivated

CR practically arrests gene expression levels involved in the aging phenotype. protects telomeres
slows the onset of chronic diseases

causes hormesis, including endoplasmic reticulum hormesis

works independently of ghrelin
preserves leptin functioning
slows the age-related loss of gut integrity
expect a lower T3 (thyroid hormone) level on CR

minimize intake of vitamin B3 and CO-Q10

calorie restriction mimetics

potentiated by polyphenols

Resveratrol is not an effective calorie restriction mimetic.

calorie restriction versus oxidative stress, more, more, more

one concern about calorie restriction: a tendency to develop osteoporosis

maybe not so for the obese, or maybe so
low IGF-1 is one reason those on CR so easily feel cold

Calorie restriction can lower white blood cell count – which only means less inflammation. This lowering of white blood cell count does not mean decreased resistance to infection. It does indicate less oxidative damage to DNA and RNA.

curcumin versus oxidative stress, more

versus pretty close to everything
how the system of intellectual property fails us


Cannabis versus suicide and premature death.
Cannabis is not an accident hazard: safer than alcohol, tobacco and opioids.

Well, maybe it is an accident hazard, especially in excess.

No evidence of increased crash risk in drivers with THC < 5ng/m. Too much can be a driving hazard.
Roadside THC checkpoints are useless.

Cannabis is not a midlife health hazard – it lessens aggressive tendencies.Cannabis versus opioid addiction:

The anti-opioid effect of cannabis was shown in a study of 77 patients.
The anti-opioid effect of cannabis was shown in a study of 29 patients.
The anti-opioid effect of cannabis was shown in a study of 244 patients.
The anti-opioid effect of cannabis was shown in a study of 2245 patients.
The anti-opioid effect of cannabis was shown in a study of 66 patients.

The anti-opioid effect of cannabis was shown in a study of 67,422 patients.

The anti-opioid effect of cannabis was shown in a study of 125 patients

The anti-opioid effect of cannabis was shown in a study funded by the USA.

Medical marijuana laws decrease the accident hazard of opioid use/abuse.

States with medical cannabis laws had a 24.8% lower mean annual opioid overdose mortality rate compared with states without medical cannabis laws.

Colorado’s legalization of recreational cannabis sales and use resulted in a 0.7 deaths per month reduction in opioid-related deaths.

Among respondents that regularly used opioids, over three-quarters (76.7%) indicated that they reduced their use since they started medical cannabis (MC). This was significantly greater than the patients that reduced their use of antidepressants (37.6%) or alcohol (42.0%). Approximately two-thirds of patients decreased their use of anti-anxiety (71.8%), migraine (66.7%), and sleep (65.2%) medications.

If all states had allowed use of medical marijuana in 2014, the total Medicaid savings that year would in theory have been about $1 billion. 

Cannabis versus alcohol addiction, PTSD, and social anxiety.
Medical cannabis does not increase teen use.
But not too much cannabis:

Edibles can be over-consumed, and vaporizers can pack an extra punch.

Cannabis does not affect everyone the same way.
High CBD cannabis may have less tendency to produce paranoia and anxiety.
Most CBD products are risky to consume.

Commercial cannabis can have excessive pesticide residue.

Grow your own!

Cannabis versus multiple prescription drugs.
Unregulated cannabis vapor cartridges can be hazardous.
After-hours cannabis use has no impact on workplace performance.
Now if the US Government will only get out of the way
Now if some anti marijuana crusaders will only stop lying.

Avoid canned fruit.

Canola oil ist he healthiest refined oil to cook with.
capsaicinfrom spicy foods like chili peppers.
a low-carb diet – but don’t go hog-wild, or use meat/dairy to supply needed calories
animal-based (high saturated fat) low-carb diet caution
Minimize simple carbohydrates :increase dietary fibre intake and replace refined grains with whole grains. Eat a plant-based diet.

Low-carb diet caution – unless it is done via a plantbased diet. Minimum mortality occurs when carbs supply 50% of caloric needs.

carbon monoxide detectors should be placed high on a wall or even ceiling

carnosine, more, more, more, more, more, more, more, more, more, more, more

or beta alanine

cell phone (electromagnetic) radiation → lower sperm motility?
chamomile tea

as a topical treatment to speed wound healing

salmonella in chicken caution
chiropractic caution

Cholesterol control is important for longevity.
HDL cholesterol is also bad (like LDL cholesterol), especially extreme HDL.

cholesterol is important even for the oldest old