Long Term Cognition via a Plant-Based Diet

Healthful eating is among the best ways to protect your aging brain against slippage. Conversely, a diet that skimps on fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts and fish and includes lots of fried foods, red meat and alcohol is highly likely to pave a road to cognitive ruin. Don’t worry about pesticides.

Components of the Western diet (saturated fatty acids and simple carbohydrates) are detrimental to the brain, impair cognition, and increase AD pathologies. While components of the Mediterranean diet (polyunsaturated fatty acids, polyphenols, and antioxidants) are considered to be neuroprotective. Exercise can significantly reduce the risk of AD

Graphical Abstract

The MIND diet is similar to a plant-based diet.
The effects of the mind diet was shown by a study of 27,842 men with a mean age of 51 years in 1986. But eat oranges, rather than consume orange juice.
Rush University Medical Center: do not add unhealthy (Western Diet) foods to the MIND diet.
This study of 960 older adults who were free of dementia on enrollment showed that the MIND diet (similar to a plant-based diet) found to reduce the risk of cardiovascular conditions, such as hypertension, heart attack, and stroke, as well as cognitive decline.
The MIND diet works independently of other brain pathologies.
The Mayo Clinic recommends the MIND diet or the Mediterranean diet to avoid dementia.

The Chinese Longitudinal Health Longevity Study (CLHLS) touts veggies and beans.

This study of 2613 men and women showed the protective effects of
fruit and vegetable intake.

This study of 3,718 participants, aged 65 years and older showed the protective effects of
fruit and vegetable intake.

This study of 13,388 women showed the protective effects of
fruit and vegetable intake.

This study of 27,860 men and women showed the protective effects of
fruit and vegetable intake.

This systematic review of nine studies featuring 44,004 participants showed the protective effects of fruit and vegetable intake.
This study of 27,842 men with a mean age of 51 years in 1986 showed the protective effects of fruit and vegetable intake.

This study of 6,911 residents aged 65 or older found that lower intakes of vegetables and legumes were associated with cognitive decline.

Shown by a study of 139,000 older Australians.

This study of 1,059 people in Greece with an average age of 73 who did not have dementia showed that people who consumed an anti-inflammatory diet that includes more fruits, vegetables, beans, and tea or coffee, had a lower risk of developing dementia later in life.

A Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life” (plant-based), was carried out over 12 years with the participation of 842 people aged over 65 revealed a protective association between metabolites derived from cocoa, coffee, mushrooms and red wine, microbial metabolism of polyphenol-rich foods (apple, cocoa, green tea, blueberries, oranges or pomegranates) and cognitive impairment in the elderly.

This cross-sectional study included 635 community-dwelling people aged 69–71 years showed that a diet with high intakes of vegetables, soy products, fruit, and fish may have a beneficial effect on cognitive function in older Japanese people.

The AD-stimulating pathway begins inside of us—in our GI-tract microbiome—and therefore is very “locally sourced” and active throughout our lives. The highly potent neurotoxin Bacteroides fragilis – lipopolysaccharide (BF-LPS) is a natural by-product of GI-tract-based microbial metabolism. Bacteroides fragilis abundance in the microbiome, which is the source of the neurotoxin BF-LPS, can be regulated by dietary fiber intake.

All of the foods that are highest in antioxidants are plant foods. Foods rich in antioxidants may reduce the chance of Alzheimer’s disease. Plant foods provide neuroprotective effects by assisting with antioxidant defense.

A purely plant-based diet will minimize pesticide consumption resulting in less chance of cognitive decline.

Alpha-lipoic acid, from dark green leafy veggies may be protective against cognitive decline. Here are food sources.
Lipoic acid is a critical component of the antioxidant network. R-Lipoic acid—as a micronutrient and a therapeutic agent—stimulated interest in clinical research because of its therapeutic implications for the metabolic syndrome, diabetic polyneuropathies, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.
People with the highest levels of the antioxidants lutein and zeaxanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin in their blood were less likely to develop dementia decades later than people with lower levels of the antioxidants. Lutein and zeaxanthin are found in green, leafy vegetables such as kale, spinach, broccoli and peas. Beta-cryptoxanthin is found in fruits such as oranges, papaya, tangerines and persimmons.

Cerebrovascular resistance index is the ratio of blood pressure to blood flow in the brain. Increased cerebrovascular stiffening, endothelial dysfunction  may drive or operate in parallel to these cerebrovascular abnormalities. This study of 232 older adults showed diminished inferior parietal and temporal cerebral blood flow for patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Cerebrovascular resistance index was significantly elevated in amyloid-positive versus amyloid-negative cases, with additional elevation in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.
High levels of nitrates are found in foods such as beets, celery, cabbage, spinach, and other leafy green vegetables can increase blood flow to the frontal lobe of the brain, improving cognitive function and protecting against cognitive decline

Apigenin presents neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and might represent an important neuroimmunomodulatory agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions.
Apigenin improves neuron formation and strengthens the connections between brain cells.
Apigenin may have neuroprotective/disease-modifying properties in various neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease.
Apigenin is found in parsley, chamomile, celery, vine-spinach, artichokes, and oregano.

Apples can contain quercetin which  appears to protect brain cells against oxidative stress, a tissue-damaging process associated with Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative disorders.
Apples always feature polyphenols and other phytochemicals. Exposure to apples and apple products has been associated with beneficial effects on risk, markers, and etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and Alzheimer’s disease.

In vivo, anatabine significantly lowers brain soluble Aβ₁₋₄₀ and Aβ₁₋₄₂ levels in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. In another study, anatabine reduced β-amyloidosis, neuroinflammation and alleviates some behavioral deficits in mice. Anatabine is found in green peppers, eggplant, tobacco and tomatoes.

Anthocyanins are mostly from colorful fruits and veggies. Black rice is a rich source of anthocyanins.
The anthocyanins in red cabbage resulted in greater protection from the A-beta-induced toxicity in cell culture.


Berries can lower oxidative stress and inflammation or directly by altering the signaling involved in neuronal communication, calcium buffering ability, neuroprotective stress shock proteins, plasticity, and stress signaling pathways. Berries are neuroprotective. Berry polyphenols such as pterostilbene and anthocyanins are especially beneficial.
Berries also promote autophagy, the brain’s natural housekeeping mechanism. Berries lower neuroinflammation.
Blueberries, or any berries are neuroprotective.
This study of 16,010 participants, aged ≥70 years showed that higher intake of flavonoids, particularly from berries, appears to reduce rates of cognitive decline in older adults.
Blueberries may slow brain ageing. This study of 26 healthy adults aged 65-77 who drank concentrated blueberry juice every day showed improvements in cognitive function, blood flow to the brain and activation of the brain while carrying out cognitive tests.
Drinking concentrated blueberry juice improves brain function in older people.
Blueberries promote hippocampal plasticity.
Blueberries protect from damage due to beta amyloid.
Blueberries increase brain blood flow.
Blueberries work via polyphenols which prevent oxidative stress such as from iron.
This study of nine older adults with early memory changes showed that moderate-term blueberry supplementation can confer neurocognitive benefit.
Blueberries may even counter radiation damage.
Take some blueberry extract if one cannot/will not consume blueberries.
Blueberries work  via  pterostilbene.
In rats, pterostilbene was effective in reversing cognitive behavioral deficits, as well as dopamine release, and working memory was correlated with pterostilbene levels in the hippocampus.
In rats, pterostilbene treatment attenuated glutamate-induced oxidative stress injury in neuronal cells via the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

All berries will slow cognitive decline:
This study of 16,010 participants, aged ≥70 years showed that higher intake of flavonoids, particularly from berries, appears to reduce rates of cognitive decline in older adults.
60 cognitively healthy participants consumed freeze-dried cranberry powder, equivalent to a cup or 100 grams of fresh cranberries, daily. The results showed that consuming cranberries significantly improved the participants’ memory of everyday events (visual episodic memory), neural functioning, and delivery of blood to the brain (brain perfusion).
This study of rats showed that blueberry, spinach, or strawberry dietary supplementation provides phytochemicals that may be beneficial in reversing the course of neuronal and behavioral aging.
Berries are best when consumed without milk.

Butyrate in mice was associated with an increase in the pleiotropic and prolongevity hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). An increase in FGF21 correlated with increased AMPK and SIRT-1 activation and reduced mTOR signaling. .Butyrate increases in ones digestive tract from consuming soluble (fermentable) fiber.

This study featured a median 19.7-year follow-up in which a total of 670 cases of disabling dementia developed. Dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with risk of dementia. The inverse association was more evident for soluble fiber intake and was confined to dementia without a history of stroke.

Carotenoids play a pivotal role in prevention of many degenerative diseases mediated by oxidative stress including neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Reduced carotenoid levels have been associated with dementia.
The value of carotenoids for keeping one’s marbles was demonstrated in a study of 2983 middle aged adults.


Fisetin may reduce the age-related decline in brain function.
Fisetin has now been shown in preclinical models to be effective at preventing the development and/or progression of multiple neurological disorders including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, stroke (both ischemic and hemorrhagic) and traumatic brain injury as well as to reduce age-associated changes in the brain.
The neuroprotective effects of fisetin have been shown in several in vitro and in vivo models of neurological disorders due to its actions on multiple pathways associated with different neurological disorders.
Oral administration of fisetin to mice from 3 to 12 months of age prevents the development of learning and memory deficits.
Orally administered fisetin crosses the blood–brain barrier and promotes synaptic functions in the hippocampus.
Fisetin can inhibit the aggregation of the amyloid beta protein (Abeta) that may cause the progressive neuronal loss in Alzheimer’s disease.

Blood and brain levels of sugars affixed to proteins known as advanced glycation end-products-or AGEs-were reduced in fisetin-treated compared to untreated mice. These decreases were accompanied by increased activity of the enzyme glyoxalase 1, which promotes removal of toxic AGE precursors.

Mechanisms of Action of Fisetin and their Potential Relevance to Neurological Diseases

Mechanism of Action Potential Disease Relevance
Antioxidant and chelating activity AD; PD; HD; ALS; stroke; TBI
Maintenance of GSH AD; PD; stroke; TBI
Neurotrophic factor signaling pathways AD; PD; HD; TBI
Anti-inflammatory activity AD; PD; ALS; stroke; TBI
Modulation of protein aggregation and stability AD; PD; HD; ALS
Inhibition of oxytosis/ferroptosis AD; PD; HD; ALS; stroke; TBI
Modulation of gut microbiome AD; PD; stroke; TBI
Senolytic activity AD; PD; ALS

Fisetin: is found especially in strawberries, also in mangoes, grapes, tomatoes, onion, cucumber, apples, and peaches.


There are more than 5000 types of flavonoid, and they are found almost ubiquitously in plants and thus are widely available in the human diet. The six main subclasses of flavonoids are: anthocyanidins, flavones, isoflavones, flavonols, flavanones, and flavan-3-ols (flavanols). There is now a substantial and growing body of evidence supporting the ability of flavonoids to interfere in AD-related pathways
Flavonoids may cause a rise in BNDF as shown in these two randomised, controlled trials.
Flavonoids may protect vulnerable neurons and enhance the function of existing neuronal structures.
The intake of dietary antioxidant flavonoids may be inversely related to the risk of incident dementia.
Flavonoids exert a multiplicity of neuroprotective actions within the brain, including a potential to protect neurons against injury induced by neurotoxins, an ability to suppress neuroinflammation, and the potential to promote memory, learning and cognitive function. Flavoniods are abundant in cocoa, berries, citrus, and green tea
Dietary flavonols were shown effective in a study of 821 participants.
Dietary flavonols were shown effective in a study of 921 participants.
Dietary flavonoids were shown effective in a study of 1,640 subjects 
Dietary flavonols were shown effective in the Framingham Offspring Cohort.
The intake of dietary antioxidant flavonoids may be inversely related to the risk of incident dementia.
A study of 49,493 women and 27,842 men showed that higher intake of total flavonoids was associated with lower odds of subjective cognitive decline.
Higher dietary flavonoid intake is associated with slower rates of cognitive decline and dementia. And foods rich in anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins, which give berries their red, blue, or purple color, have been found to improve cognition.

An epidemiological study of 2,800 people aged 50 and older showed that those who consumed only small amounts of flavonoid-rich foods, such as berries, apples and tea, were two to four times more likely to develop Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias over 20 years compared with people whose intake was higher.
A 12-week parallel randomised placebo-controlled trial of freeze-dried cranberry powder (high in flavonoids) was conducted in 60 older adults aged between 50 and 80 years. Half of the participants consumed freeze-dried cranberry powder, equivalent to a cup or 100g of fresh cranberries, daily. The other half consumed a placebo. Results are that daily cranberry supplementation (equivalent to 1 small cup of cranberries) over a 12-week period improves episodic memory performance and neural functioning, providing a basis for future investigations to determine efficacy in the context of neurological disease.

Here are two lists (from the USDA) of the flavonoid content of foods. Here is another partial list of flavonoids in foods.

Folate and folic acid

A plant-based diet will supply folate via greens and beans.
Besides folate, other B vitamins (except B12) are plentiful on a plant-based diet.
Folate and vitamin B12 can protect one from the effects of high homocysteine.
Folate increased the expression of Notch1, Hes1, and Hes5 and the number of the newborn hippocampal rat neurons.
Red Blood Cell folate is directly associated with cognitive function scores and is inversely associated with dementia in elderly Latinos despite folic acid fortification.

Here is the problem with folic acid supplements:

Almost all of the folate you ingest from foods gets broken down and converted into its active form in your gut before being absorbed into your bloodstream. In contrast, a much smaller percentage of the folic acid you get from fortified foods or supplements gets turned into its active form in your gut. The rest requires the help of your liver and other tissues to get converted via a slow and inefficient process.

Folic acid supplements or fortified foods may cause unmetabolized folic acid (UMFA) to accumulate in your blood — something that doesn’t happen when you eat high folate foods. This is concerning because high levels of UMFA appear to be linked to various health concerns. Excess folic acid intake may speed age-related mental decline, particularly in people with low vitamin B12 levels.

Excessive folic acid supplement intake may increase cancer cells’ ability to grow and spread, though more research is needed. This may be particularly detrimental to people with a history of cancer.
There is no substitute for a healthy diet.

Inulin is a prebiotic that improved the gut microbiome of middle-aged mice to resemble that of younger mice. Inulin is found onions, garlic, leeks, jerusalem artichoke, chicory, asparagus, and bananas.

The hazard of too much dietary iron

Older adults with high dietary intake of nutrients commonly found in nuts, soybeans, olive oils, and fish (such as vitamin E, lysine, DHA omega-3 and LA omega-6 PUFA) tended to have lower brain iron and better working memory performance than expected for their age. Too much iron in the brain is hazardous.

AD can be prevented by: (1) limiting the dietary supply of trivalent iron contained in red and processed meat; (2) increasing the intake of chlorophyll-derived magnesium; and (3) consumption of foods rich in polyphenolic substances .

Thymoquinone in black cumin (Nigella sativa) prevents β-amyloid neurotoxicity in cultured cerebellar neurons.
Thymoquinone protects cultured rat primary hippocampal neurons against α-synuclein-induced synaptic toxicity. This may apply to Parkinson’s disease.

The use of antioxidants as dietary supplements is common, but little is known of their effects on stem cells. This new research shows that large doses of antioxidants may be harmful to neural stem cells.
There is a large body of evidence that maintaining healthy vitamin C levels can have a protective function against age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease, but avoiding vitamin C deficiency is likely to be more beneficial than taking supplements on top of a normal, healthy diet. Here are food sources of vitamin C.
Maintaining healthy vitamin C levels can have a protective function against age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease. Vitamin C might help dissolve amyloid β. Ascorbate is transported into the brain and neurons via the Sodium-dependent Vitamin C Transporter-2 (SVCT2), which causes accumulation of ascorbate within cells against a concentration gradient.

Hesperidin and other citrus flavonoids

Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found abundantly in the rinds of citrus fruit, has been reported to have antioxidant, hypolipidaemic, analgesic and anti-hypertensive activity. Hand-squeezed citrus juices contain no hesperidin.
Hesperidin and other flavonoids (polyphenols) can protect vascular health.
Hesperidin can effectively protect neurons from damages induced by oxidative or nitrosative stress. Moreover, it enhances cognitive functions through various mechanisms such as elevating BDNF and reversing the disruptive effect of global cerebral I/R on memory.
Hesperidin is able to improve memory in healthy adult mice by two main mechanisms: directly, by inducing synapse formation and function between hippocampal and cortical neurons; and indirectly, by enhancing the synaptogenic ability of cortical astrocytes mainly due to increased secretion of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) by these cells. 
Pretreatment of hesperidin (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight orally once daily for 15 days) to Swiss male albino mice has prevented the cognitive impairment that would have been caused by giving single intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) injection (2.57 mg/kg body weight each side) bilaterally.
Naringenin targets several inflammatory signals involved in the neuroinflammation. Pre-treatment with naringenin significantly attenuated neuroapoptosis and cognitive dysfunction in rats.Naringenin is a multi-target flavonoid, possessing promising neuroprotective effects, through targeting multiple therapeutic targets and signaling pathways.
Naringenin improved memory deficits and caused reductions in amyloid and tau proteins in mice.
Preclinical studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective potential of citrus flavonoids and have highlighted both the well established (anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties), and newly emerging (influence upon blood-brain barrier function/integrity) mechanistic actions by which these neurological effects are mediated.

A plant-based diet for a healthier gut microbiome (important): The brain microbiome is the same as the gut microbiome. The elevated presence of pro-inflammatory bacterial strains and the decreased presence of anti-inflammatory strains in the microbiomes of the gut had a positive correlation with a heightened inflammatory state. Higher levels of cognitive impairment and a greater concentration of amyloid deposition in the brain. Meat causes inflammation due to bacterial endotoxins combined the the saturated fat. Saturated fat injures via changed gut bacteria.
Bacteria in the brain are the same as in the gut.

Dietary vitamin K: kale and other dark green leafy veggies are a source:
Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin is essential for forming sphingolipids, a type of fat that’s densely packed into brain cells. Vitamin K helps cognitive function, especially in older adults. vitamin K deficiency may be associated to cognitive decline.

This study of 192 consecutive participants ≥65 years showed that higher dietary phylloquinone (vitamin K) intake was associated with better cognition and behavior among older adults.

Vitamin K2: There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating that vitamin K2 has the potential to slow the progression of AD and contribute to its prevention. (Some K2 is made in the body from vitamin K, natto has lots, the rest of us have to supplement vitamin K2 MK7). Vitamin K2 demonstrated very promising impact in hindering aging-related behavioral, functional, biochemical and histopathological changes in the senile aging rat brain.

Pretreatment of hippocampal cultures with lipoic acid significantly protected against amyloid beta-peptide and iron/hydrogen peroxide toxicity.
Alpha lipoic acid , best from dark green leafy veggies, which also supply magnesium,  vs. brain iron overload

Luteolin may have neuroprotective/disease-modifying properties in various neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease.
Luteolin is effective against amyloid beta(25-35) peptide-induced toxicity in mice.
Luteolin may reduce brain inflammation.
Luteolin reduces age-related inflammation in the brain and related memory deficits by directly inhibiting the release of inflammatory molecules in the brain.
The flavone luteolin has numerous useful actions that include: anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, microglia inhibition, neuroprotection, and memory increase.
Found in peppers, celery, thyme, rosemary, chamomile, and parsley.

Lycopene vs. cerebral oxidative stress.
Lycopene vs. mitochonrial oxidative stress.
Lycopene may protect hippocampal neurons.
The best source lycopene is cooked tomatoes.lutein:

Brain lutein preserves P3 amplitude which is a metric of cognitive function in decision making processes.
Lutein works via grey matter thickness of the right parahippocampal cortex.
Lutein and zeaxanthin may boost brain function in older people.
Lutein and zeaxanthin promote cognitive functioning in old age by enhancing neural efficiency. Both carotenoids are found in dark leafy green veggies.
Lutein and zeaxanthin in neural tissue may have biological effects that include antioxidation, antiinflammation, and structural actions. In adults, higher lutein status is related to better cognitive performance.
This study of 59 young (18-25 yrs.), healthy subjects showed that dietary carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin increqased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and anti-oxidant capacity. For cognitive measures, scores for composite memory, verbal memory, sustained attention, psychomotor speed, and processing speed all improved significantly.

Magnesium supports the amyloid-beta protein precursor (AbetaPP) alpha-secretase cleavage pathway.
Magnesium helps maintain the plasticity of synapses.
Magnesium is abundant in a carefully chosen plant-based diet
But not too much

Nitrate-rich veggies for better blood flow to the brain


Dietary polyphenols exhibit a strong potential to promote brain due to their efficacy in protecting neurons against oxidative stress-induced injury, suppressing neuroinflammation and in ameliorating cardiovascular risk factor control and cardiovascular function thus counteracting neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration.
Pre-conditioning with phenolic sulfates improved cellular responses to oxidative, excitotoxicity and inflammatory injuries and this attenuation of neuroinflammation was achieved via modulation of NF-κB pathway. These small molecules, derived from dietary polyphenols may cross the BBB, reach brain cells, modulate microglia-mediated inflammation and exert neuroprotective effects, with potential for alleviation of neurodegenerative diseases.
Polyphenols accumulate in the brain.
Polyphenols are widely distributed in plants. The neuroprotective effect of dietary polyphenols was clearly shown in this systematic review of 24 studies.
Four meta-analyses and thirteen systematic reviews published between 2017–2020 showed that there is support for an association between polyphenol consumption and cognitive benefits.
Polyphenols may fight oxidative damage in the brain.
Polyphenols with notable radical-scavenging activity include curcumin from turmeric and EGCG from green tea. In addition to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, polyphenols have been coupled with the increased expression of BDNF, assisting in the reversal of neuronal atrophy and behavior deficits.
This systematic review of 48 studies found strong indications that polyphenols tend to have a positive effect on BDNF concentrations.
This randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study was performed in 60 healthy volunteers between 50 and 75 years old who consumed a cocoa powder, a red berries mixture or a combination of both for 12 weeks. All groups did better on a  neurocognitive test known as the Tower of London.
This review of 29 published human studies concluded that
consumption of sweet or tart cherries can promote health by preventing or decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation.
In this French cohort of 1,329 older adults without dementia, a polyphenol pattern provided by a diet containing specific plant products (nuts, citrus, berries, leafy vegetables, soy, cereals, olive oil) accompanied by red wine and tea was associated with lower dementia risk.
Polyphenols decrease oxidative/inflammatory stress signaling, increase protective signaling and have neurohormetic effects leading to the expression of genes that encode antioxidant enzymes, phase-2 enzymes, neurotrophic factors, and cytoprotective proteins.
Polyphenols may increase cellular signaling and neuronal communication.
Polyphenols may reverse age-related decline in neuronal signalling (in rats).
Polyphenols can reverse age-related declines in neuronal signal transduction as well as cognitive and motor deficits.
Polyphenols protect the brain by inhibition of apoptosis triggered by neurotoxic species and to a promotion of neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity.
Polyphenols induce beneficial effects on the vascular system, leading to changes in cerebrovascular blood flow capable of causing enhance vascularisation and neurogenesis.
Polyphenols show benefit in the mouse model of Alzheimer’s.
The neuroprotective effect of dietary polyphenols was clearly shown in this systematic review of 24 studies.
Walnuts, and grapes are rich in polyphenols vs. tau neuropathology (important).
Concord grape juice (rich in polyphenols) supplementation improves memory function and neurocognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.
Concord grape juice supplementation produced significant improvements in immediate spatial memory and driving performance in 25 healthy women.

Walnuts have polyphenols. Dark green leafy veggies feature antioxidants, vitamins, flavonoids, and polyphenolic compounds.
Polyphenols are widely distributed in plants.
Phytochemicals are not listed in the “Nutrition Facts” label. 

Leaky gut is a cognitive hazard. Here is information on leaky gut. Chronic stress and obesity can cause leaky gut. A polyphenol-rich plant-based diet versus leaky gut syndrome. Fish oil→higher intestinal alkaline posphatase (IAP)→less leaky gut→lower lipopolysccharides. Lipopolysccharides in circulation can damage the blood-brain barrier and enter the brain, causing inflammation, depression, and neurological problems. Insulin resistance may also increase. Epigenetic aging may also accelerate.
Leaky gut is also called intestinal permeability

Sulforaphane vs brain inflammation: the best source is broccoli sprouts. Sulforphane may increase brain glutathione levels.
Phytochemicals from broccoli might protect the hippocampus.

Ferrulic acid exhibits wide variety of biological activities such as antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antiallergic, hepatoprotective, anticarcinogenic, antithrombotic, increase sperm viability, antiviral and vasodilatory actions, metal chelation, modulation of enzyme activity, activation of transcriptional factors, gene expression and signal transduction.
Oral ferrulic acid treatment for 6 months reversed transgene-associated behavioral deficits including defective: hyperactivity, object recognition, and spatial working and reference memory. Furthermore, brain parenchymal and cerebral vascular β-amyloid deposits as well as abundance of various Aβ species including oligomers were decreased.
Ferulic acid has low toxicity and possesses many physiological functions, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer (for instance lung, breast, colon and skin cancer), anti-arrhythmic, and antithrombotic activity, and it also demonstrated antidiabetic effects and immunostimulant properties, and it reduces nerve cell damage and may help to repair damaged cells.
Ferrulic acid given to  diabetic rats resulted in a decrease in the levels of glucose, TBARS, hydroperoxides, FFA and an increase in reduced glutathione.
Oral administration of ferrulic acid appears beneficial in improving hypertension and hyperlipidemia in rats.
Ferulic acid is found in flax seeds, many beans, whole grains. Here is a list.

Spermidine may improve the degradation of misfolded proteins, thus slow down age-related memory decline. Mushrooms and chickpeas are rich in spermidine.

The bioavailable copper in meat is a cognitive hazard.

Eat a variety of plant foods, and stay away from refined grains.

A plant-based diet boosts superoxide dismutase to protect mitochondria.

A plant-based diet overcomes the ApoE4 genetic Alzheimer’s susceptibility gene.

A quality plant-based diet prevents brain shinkage.

Awestern/southern diet that may promote: Alzheimer’s, frontotemporal dementia, and other neurodegenerative conditions.
Strong evidence a western diet promoting Alzheimer’s in Japan.
A poor diet caused Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s in rats.
A poor diet can damage perineuronal nets.
A western diet produced systemic oxidant stress along with evidence of activation of Na,K-ATPase (the sodium–potassium pump enzyme) signaling within both mouse brain and peripheral tissues. This diet caused increases in circulating inflammatory cytokines as well as behavioral, and brain biochemical changes consistent with neurodegeneration.

Just one salad per day may delay brain ageing by 11 years.
Onion extract and quercetin protected against Ischemic neuronal damage in the gerbil hippocampus.

When a plant-based diet is combined with fried food, sweets, refined grains, red meat and processed meat, benefits are diminished.

All diets, including the plant-based diet can have drawbacks. A plant-based diet will not give one license to ignore cholestero, blood pressure, etc.


By Otto

I am a health enthusiast, engineer, and maker.


  1. Pretty nice post. I just stumbled upon your weblog and wanted to say that I have truly enjoyed surfing around your blog posts. After all I will be subscribing to your feed and I hope you write again very soon!

  2. Bears love berries. I eat a lot of them in my breakfast. Bears also love honey, which is high in fructose – bad news if more than a tiny bit is consumed.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published.