see the Long Term Cognition sections for Alzheimer’s prevention
acetyl-L-carnitine: Taking acetyl-L-carnitine improves memory and mental function in older people with some memory loss . It may reduce attention deficits in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) after long-term treatment. I may be effective where acetylcholinesterase inhibitors have failed.
may help prevent depression in dementia patients
supports astrocyte ketogenesis
may protect neurons from amyloid-caused oxidative stress for slower deterioration
may attenuate ApoE4 pathology
most likely to benefit AD patients younger than 61-65, or early AD
may treat patients with cerebrovascular insufficiency
may treat cognitive deficit due to alcoholism
in combination with alpha lipoic acid: may help prevent mitochondrial decay
combined with folate, vitamin B6, alpha-tocopherol, S-adenosyl methionine, N-acetyl cysteine
tested on 481 subjects enrolled in 44 geriatric and neurologic units
moderate alcohol consumption?
alpha-GPC (choline alfoscerate) (glycerophosphocholine)
alpha lipoic acid, more, more
amla (Anwala churna)
peppers, tobacco, eggplant, green tomatoes
Anwala churna (Emblica officinalis)
ashwagandha, more, more, more, more, more, more, more (Withania somnifera)
aspirin may reduce amyloid β-peptide plaques in the brain
astaxanthin, more, more may be protective effect against beta-amyloid-induced cytotoxicity.
supplemental B vitamins may prevent some brain shrinkage and improve cognition
Bacopa monnieri, more
bamboo, more (Bambusae concretio Salicea):
benzodiazepine (sleeping pill) use could be linked to bone fractures in patients
bay leaf (Laurus nobilis)
Blueberries improved the memory of nine older adults with early memory changes
supplies anthocyanins, pterostilbene, and other polyphenols
one Brazil nut per day may treat mild cognitive impairment via selenium
avoid canola oil
vitamin C to prevent siezures
calorie restriction – in Squirrel Monkeys
Caffeine benefited mice bred for Alzheimer’s that exhibited cognitive impairment.
cannabis, more, more, more, more, more, more, more, more, more, more, more
- amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) accumulation and aggregation – in vitro
- Aβ toxicity
For relieving behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.
For improved memory and reduced neuronal loss?
More than a little cannabis will reduce blood flow to the brain, especially the hippocampus. But this study suggests that CBD improves blood flow to the hippocampus
A low-carb diet?
cherries improve memory and cognition
chocolate, more, more
cinnamon (liver caution)
circadian clock strengthening via morning light therapy and nighttime melatonin
see the longevity post for circadian oscillation information
citrus, more, more, more, and citrus peel
CO-Q10 (or idebenone (more), more, more
Cocoa helped memory-deficient snails.
Cocoa reversed age-related memory decline in 37 healthy volunteers, ages 50 to 69.
Cocoa improved symptoms of mild cognitive impairment in 90 elderly participants.
Cocoa improved memory in 968 community-dwelling participants, aged 23-98 years.
coffee, more, more – or not
curcumin, more, more, more, more, more, more, more, more, more, more, more, more, more, more, more, more, more, more (from turmeric: better than purified curcumin)
Curcumin may enhance Aβ uptake by macrophages of Alzheimer’s disease patients.
Curcumin may delay degradation of neurons.
vitamin D, more, more, more, more
deferiprone, more, more
having a dog
dong quai (Angelica sinensis)
drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera)
vitamin E, more, more
Among patients with mild to moderate AD, 2000 IU/d of alpha tocopherol compared with placebo resulted in slower functional decline.
exercise, more, more, more, more, more, more, more
Shown by a study of 454 older adults; 191 had dementia and 263 did not.
Shown by a study of 186 people with dementia
Exercise works via the mTOR signaling pathway.
Treadmill walking helps.
aerobic exercise, more
works via irisin
improves executive function and reduce fall risk
dancing may be best
resistance training also, more
Shown by 100 community-dwelling adults with MCI, aged between 55 and 86.
best at least mildly vigorous, though walking also helps
vigorous exercise generates more BNDF
slows the onset of Alzheimer’s memory loss – never too late
flax, walnuts, or fish–oil (omega-3 fatty acids)
best used in the early stages of disease progression
reduces amyloid in mice and in vitro (+ vitamin D)
works via signaling molecules called docosanoids
works also with mild cognitive impairment
Ω-3 fats may help prevent mild cognitive impairment from progressing to dementia.
Shown by a study of 485 participants.
Shown by a study of 50 people aged 65 years with MCI.
Shown by a study of 12 MCI patients over the course of 4 to 17 months
genistein, more, more (from soy)
ginkgo biloba, more, more, more, more
Panax (Korean Red) Ginseng, more, more, more, more
goji, more (Lycium barbarum)
grape seed extract, more, more (grape seed equivalent to pycnogenol)
green tea, more, more, more, more
in combination with huperzine A
in combination with ferrulic acid
horny goat weed (Epimedium species)
huperzine A, more, more, more, more, more, more, more
treat brain inflammation? brain inflammation is covered in this blog post
Old mice treated for brain inflammation behaved like younger mice.
kava (Piper methysticum)
ketogenic diet more, more, more
Ketones and ketosis can be present without a (problematic) ketogenic diet.
Intermittent fasting, or just eating less will accomplish this.
lemon balm (Melissa officinalis)
lewy body dementia can mimic Alzheimer’s, but the proper treatment is vastly different
lewy body dementia treatment
light therapy, especially pulsed?
lipoic acid, more, more
luteolin (in celery, peppers, oranges, thyme)
lycopene (cooked tomatoes)
Serum magnesium levels are chronically lower in Alzheimer’s patients.
Especially magnesium threonate:
Magnesium threonate can ameliorate the AD-like pathologies and cognitive deficits in mice.
Magnesium threonate prevents synaptic loss and reverses cognitive deficits in Alzheimer’s disease mouse model.
Magnesium threonate alleviated cognitive decline by suppressing the Aβ deposition in amyloid plaques in Alzheimer’s disease mouse model..
mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana)
melatonin, more, more, more
memantine may increase the chance of pneumonia
methylcobalamin, a form of vitamin B12
mindfulness meditation, more
modifies the default mode network – a good thing
music therapy, more, more
rhythm training and dance
n-back – probably not (enriched environment is similar to mind games) Cochrane: “…no evidence that cognitive training was better than participating in other active treatments.”
neurogenesis? – see the (h-z) Long Term Cognition post
niacinamide, more, more
nicotine, more, more (not effective in diabetics)
nuts and seeds provide polyunsaturated fatty acids
opioid painkillers such as buprenorphine can have serious side effects
A plant-based diet + exercise will slow cognitive decline.
Luteolin and diosmin reduced levels of amloid-beta in mice.
Flavonoids have the potential to prevent the progression of neurodegenerative pathologies and to promote cognitive performance.
red yeast rice
resveratrol, more, more, more, more, more, more, more, more, more
works via AMPK
may help clear and remodel amyloid beta peptides
restores the blood-brain barrier?
rosemary, more as good as Aricept & Donepezil
saffron, more, more
sage tea, more, more, more, more, more, more, more
Serine may help: L-serine is the precursor of D-serine, known to stimulate NMDA receptors, essential for brain function and to the establishment of memory.
learning self-management skills
beer, bananas, and string beans
Be slim: being overweight is an additional burden on brain health and it may exacerbate Alzheimer’s disease.
social interaction – just one hour per week!
Souvenaid – the active ingredient is uridine
sulphoraphane, more – the best source is broccoli sprouts
taurine – in mice
oral thiamine supplementation?
transitions in care can be hazardous
a vegan diet
early Alzheimer’s may be reversible
the problem with Alzheimer’s drugs – combined with eldercare, they work better
the Dementia Evidence Toolkit (I found nothing about exercise on this site – weird!)