avoid AGE (advanced glycation end product) accumulation – see the Parkinson’s post

acetaminophen (Paracetamol) is likely not effective for arthritis pain

apple cider vinegar

arnica, more


autophagy – elimination of senescent cells – see the longevity post

Bacillus coagulans]

germanium, more


berries vs. osteoarthritis

black cohosh root (Cimicifuga racemosa)

black cumin seeds, more

boswellia, more, more (Boswellia serrate or Indian frankincense)

broccoli, more

bromelain, more, more

  1. knee pain


cabbage leaves as a topical treatment for knee osteoarthritis

calorie restriction, more, more

cannabis, more, more, more

a high-carb diet → knee osteoarthritis

Carotene cooked with a bit of fat for best absorption.

From red, orange, and yellow veggies.

castor oil

cat’s claw, more (Uncaria tomentosa)


cherries vs. arthritis gout, vs. inflammation and pain

Chinese herbs

high cholesterol → mitochondrial oxidative stress → osteoarthritis

chondroitin outperforms celecoxib

cilantro, more

Circadian clock sychronization and strengthening vs. osteoarthritis:

Vs.osteoarthritis-like pathologic changes in the knee joint.

Research into the molecular links between ageing, circadian clocks and osteoarthritis (OA) may identify novel therapeutic routes for the prevention and management of OA, such as chronotherapy, or direct targeting of clock components/circadian rhythm.

Environmental disruption of circadian rhythm predisposes mice to osteoarthritis-like changes in knee joint.

Expression of the core clock transcription factor BMAL1 is disrupted in human OA cartilage and in aged mouse cartilage. Furthermore, targeted Bmal1 ablation in mouse chondrocytes abolished their circadian rhythm and caused progressive degeneration of articular cartilage.



Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients often exhibit sleep disorders classified as a nocturnal awakening type, and this type of disorder is characterized by a significant reduction in sleep efficiency and a significant increase in waking periods after sleep onset. Questionnaire studies of patients with sleep disorders report a “decline in the quality of sleep in patients with RA”.


see the longevity post for circadian rhythm information

citrus peel

co-Q10 vs. pain and cartilage degeneration


coffee caution

complementary medicine

This randomized, open-label, parallel, active controlled clinical study, 139 patients with kne osteoarthritis showed that curcumin was comparable to diclofenac with significantly less side effects in the curcumin group.

Vitamin D, vs. rheumatoid arthritis.

Shown by a study of 4793 patients.

Shown by a meta-analysis of 215,757 participants.

Vitamin D is a marker for moderate sun exposure which may be effective.

limit dairy

milk and egg allergies may be causative

dental diligence

devil’s claw (Harpagophytum procumbens)

curcumin, more, more, more, more, more, more, more, more, more (from turmeric)


ergothioneine, more, from mushrooms

essential oils, more

exercise, more, more, more, more

running is good, more, more – just don’t overdo it

likewise with any high-impact sport

running does not damage knees: it helps prevent knee osteoarthritis


regardless of age

Exercise helps treat arthritis: how about a walking workout.

Exercise helps treat rheumatic diseases.

intermittent fasting

see the Heart Health and Circulation (a – l) post for fasting information

fasting followed by a vegetarian diet

fasting that includes cod liver oil

avoid a high-fat, high-carb (fast food) diet


frankincense (boswellia), more, more, more, more, more

avoid fructose or sugar (1/2 fructose) – fructose in fruits is OK

fucoidan (found in bladderwrack and kelp)

garlic, more, more

germanium, more


Versus inflammation and pain

Ginger may stop rheumatoid arthritis bone and cartilage destruction. Also shown in this meta-analysis.

A quarter or half a teaspoon per day may be effective – safer than ibuprofen.

Even ground ginger may help.

Glucosamine and chondroitin are supplements prepared from one or both of these natural components of cartilage rocketed to fame in 1997 with the publication of The Arthritis Cure; the book became a bestseller, as did the supplements, which racked up worldwide sales of nearly $2 billion in 2008 alone. Many doctors were skeptical, doubting that these large molecules could be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract in meaningful amounts. But early trials, particularly those from Europe, were positive. Unfortunately, negative results followed, and a 2010 meta-analysis of 10 research studies covering 3,803 patients concluded that these supplements have no benefit. Aside from expense and disappointment, side effects have been minimal; some patients with arthritis may still decide to try these supplements for a month or two to see if they provide any pain relief. Research results suggest that chondroitin isn’t helpful for pain from osteoarthritis of the knee or hip. It’s unclear whether glucosamine helps with osteoarthritis knee pain or whether either supplement lessens osteoarthritis pain in other joints. An Australian study found hundreds of allergic reactions to glucosamine have been reported to Australia’s medicines watchdog, the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA).

gossypin (see the cancer section for more on gossypin)


green tea, more, more

gut bacteria, specifically prevotella, may help prevent rheumatoid arthritis

see “gut flora” in the Longevity post



Oral hyaluronic acid may prevent cartilage degeneration. It may also treat osteoarthritis. HA exerts pharmacologic actions by mitigating the activities of pro-inflammatory mediators and pain producing neuropeptides. HA can also reduce OA-associated pain by decreasing PGE2 and bradykinin (BK) synthesis, as well as substance P.

For oral HA treatment of osteoarthritis, the body absorbs the high molecular weight polymer as a decomposed 2–6 membered polysaccharide. One proposed mechanism of action shows that ingested HA binds to Toll-like receptor-4 and promotes the expressions of interleukin-10 and cytokine signaling, which both lead to anti-inflammation of arthritis. A systematic review of 13 reports on oral HA clinical trials found that patients that were on a highly pure HA regiment reported a beneficial effect on knee pain compared to placebo. In terms of safety, it has been shown that on a 12 month study of 30 patients taking an oral HA regiment, no statistically significant negative side effects were seen.


minimize inflammation, see the Inflammation posts

be careful with iron, more see Avoiding Diabetes post for more on iron

Vitamin K vs. rheumatoid arthritis (found in most green veggies, kale is the richest source).

kelp (may supply too much iodine)

krill oil

“Blood lead levels in the range currently considered acceptable are associated with increased prevalence of gout,” a painful arthritis. In fact, researchers found that blood levels as low as approximately 1.2 mg/dL, which is close to the current American average, can be associated with increased prevalence of gout.

avoid dietary lectins (wheat, barley, rye, maybe tomato)

especially when sick with influenza or bacterial illness

see lectins in the Inflammation Causes post

massage may help ease arthritic pain

minimize meat consumption

meditation, more, more, more

Avoiding milk consumption may help one avoid the worst of rheumatoid arthritis.


mud therapy, more


nobiletin from citrus, especially the peel

NSAID caution

olive oil or leaf

Omega-3 fatty acids vs. osteoarthritis (flax, fish).

From fish/flax/chia/walnuts and Ω-3 supplements.



Too much omega-6 intake is inflammatory

Omega-3 fats lessen osteoarthritis in mice and guinea pigs.

A reduced Ω-6/Ω-3 ratio vs. rheumatoid arthritis.


oregano oil

“paleo” (grain and dairy-free) diet


pau d’arco, more

minimize exposure to perfluorochemicals (PFCs)

phellodendron bark

A plantbased (especially vegan) diet

Versus rheumatoid arthritis: Participants in the vegan group experienced significant improvements in disease symptoms, such as swollen and tender joints.

Polyphenols for cartilage protection


whole foods

raw foods

+ garlic

works best when combined with exercise

works via improved gut microbiota

works via displacing dietary meat

works via providing plenty of dietary fiber and lower BMI

works via dietary nitrates improving arterial function

works via potassium


psoriatic arthritis treatment

PQQ found in parsley, peppers, kiwi, papaya, green tea, natto

pumpkin seeds, more

quercetin, more, more, more


Resveratrol can be a clinically effective therapy for rheumatoid arthritis.

rose colored glassesmore exerciseimproved arthritis symptoms

rose hips


S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), better than NSAIDs

sarsaparilla root

sesame seeds versus knee osteoarthritis

minimize high-heeled shoes, more

silymarin vs. knee osteoarthritis

Be slim: excess weight can contribute to both the onset and progression of knee osteoarthritis.

spearmint tea vs. knee osteoarthritis

stinging nettle, more, more

sulphur baths

sun exposure, more

tai chi, more, more, more

as good as physical therapy

thunder god vine, more (Tripterygium wilfordii)

turmeric, more, more , more, more, more (oxalate caution)

curcumin, more, more, more – from turmeric, beats diclofenac sodium

Curcumin may work as well as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen (Advil) and diclofenac (Voltaren) for rheumatoid arthritis.

ursolic acid


wheat caution

white willow bark (Salix alba)

People with genetic risk factors that make them susceptible to rheumatoid arthritis should be extremely concerned with preventing gum disease.

additional information