T-cells to the rescue!

T-cells (T-lymphocytes) are part of the adaptive (vs. innate) immune system. Influenced by hormones, they mature in the thymus into several types of cells, including helper, killer, and suppressor cells. These different types work together to attack foreign invaders. They provide what’s called cell-mediated immunity. T-cells can be fast-acting. As many viruses can replicate very quickly, this process needs to be fast to stop the virus from spreading. With the help of MHC Class II molecules presenting viral peptides on the cell surface, CD8 T cells can recognize influenza-infected cells within around 1.5 hours. But when an infection is new, it take several days before two key cell types – B cells and T cells – are brought into play.

Immunology Overview: How Does Our Immune System Protect Us?

Type 1 T helper (Th1) cells produce interferon-gamma, interleukin (IL)-2, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-beta, which activate macrophages and are responsible for cell-mediated immunity and phagocyte-dependent protective responses. Obesity has been associated with increased Th1 cells in human adipose and fatty acid metabolites, which activate Th17 T cell inflammation in blood (1117). However, studies have also suggested that Th1 T cells from people with obesity are impaired and not hyperactivated.

Helper T-cells (Th1) are explained well in this cartoon video.

Memory T-cells can protect one long after antibodies due to vaccination or infection have disappeared. Emerging studies suggest that all or a majority of people with COVID-19 develop a strong and broad T cell response, both CD4 and CD8, and some have a memory phenotype, which bodes well for potential longer-term immunity.

A subset of T cells primed against seasonal coronaviruses (some common colds are coronivirus) cross reacts with SARS-CoV-2 and may contribute to clinical protection, particularly in early life.

The source of t-cells is the thymus, which tends to atrophy with age. Exercise can prevent thymic atrophy.

Because t-cells are so important, that word (t-cells and TH1)- is in bold everywhere in this blog post.


3 omicron variant symptoms you won’t get from the common cold:

  • A unique feature of COVID-19 is loss of sense of smell and taste, which you will not find in common cold viruses.
  • The other thing is that a common cold tends not to give high fever and sometimes severe headaches, which omicron is reporting these symptoms as predominant.
  • If you do have those symptoms, it’s much more concerning that you may have gotten COVID than the common cold virus.
  • Night sweats.

Here is the CDC on Omicron. Omicron is not necessarily milder that Delta. Omicron has a (short) 10-day lag from infection to symptoms. Symptoms of Omicron, if mild, resemble the common cold, but those mildly affected can pass on that virus to those who may be hospitalized or die from it.

Dr. Mike Ryan, director of the WHO’s health emergencies program, said unvaccinated people face a higher risk that an omicron infection will make them severely sick and and possibly even kill them. That is because unvaccinated, it takes your immune system about 10 days to recognize, analyse, and start to make antibodies to a new viral threat. That means that the virus has 10 days of unfettered replication and internal colonization. This will cause you massive amounts of disparate cellular damage. And you will need to produce massive amounts of antibody to fix all the circulating virus in your system = Disease/ permanent damage (long covid) or even death.

Edward Walsh, M.D: Omicron can infect vaccinated people but seems to cause much milder disease in these people than it does in unvaccinated people.

Omicron cannot escape T cells; boosters protect households from Omicron. When antibodies fail to stop the virus from getting into our cells, T cells come to the rescue. So, avoid a high-fat (fast food) diet.

Children are among those suffering from the Omicron variant.


Vitamin supplements aren’t beneficial to your immune system unless you are deficient. Echinacia and extra vitamin C, for instance, will not help. Many products claim to “boost” the immune system. But given the complex interplay between the cells in our bodies, it’s not really possible to “boost” just one part of the immune system.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, sales of vitamin C, vitamin D, zinc, elderberry, probiotics, and other dietary supplements increased despite a lack of evidence that they reduce the risk of COVID-19 or decrease COVID-19 symptoms. Here is a guide to dietary supplements while the COVID-19 pandemic is still raging. 

Acetyl-L-cysteine → glutathione, could be anti-influenza (sometimes). Roger Seheult, MD further touts acetly-L-cysteine in this video. The European Respiratory Journal : N-acetylcysteine (NAC), treatment was well tolerated and resulted in a significant decrease in the frequency of influenza-like episodes, severity, and length of time confined to bed. Both local and systemic symptoms were sharply and significantly reduced in the NAC group. 

Vitamin A versus colds.

Vitamin B6 is vital to supporting biochemical reactions in the immune system. Vitamin B6 is a known anti-thrombosis and anti-inflammation nutrient. Vitamin B6 may help keep COVID-19’s cytokine storms at bay. Vitamin B6 is found in green vegetables and in chickpeas, which is the main ingredient in hummus.

Vitamin B12 supports CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. Low B12 caused CD4/CD8 lymphocyte ratio to be increased, and NK cell activity was depressed.

Vitamin C does not prevent colds, but may slightly improve immune function: the failure of vitamin C supplementation to reduce the incidence of colds in the general population indicates that routine vitamin C supplementation is not justified except for those in extreme situations. The recommended daily intake is 90 mg for men and 75 mg for women: easily gotten from fruits and veggies. According to Dr. Adrian Gombart, vitamin C, vitamin D, zinc, and an omega-3 fatty acid found in fish, docosahexaenoic acid, also known as DHA, are critical for immune function.

High-dose vitamin C, though, may help with infections. Continual high dosing of vitamin C is not recommended.

Vitamin D versus colds and seasonal epidemic influenza, among other maladies.
Vitamin D is effective versus covid-19 – despite the fact that covid-19 has been found to be not seasonal, like influenza is. Vitamin D may even reduce the chance of getting COVID-19. Here are studies suggesting that vitamin D may reduce the chance of hospitalization for COVID-19 patients. Here are other studies (and a supporting video) showing a significant effect of vitamin D in reducing the chance of disability and death for COVID-19 patients – especially the elderly. Vitamin D deficiency that is not sufficiently treated is associated with COVID-19 risk. Vitamin D may especially boost immunity of severely deficient patients. The obese need more vitamin D.

Conclusive evidence now for the protective effect of vitamin D supplementation on COVID-19-related intensive care hospitalization and mortality: definitive evidence from meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis.

Most people with vitamin D deficiency do not have any symptoms or only have vague, non-specific symptoms, such as tiredness or lower back ache. People living with osteoporosis, diabetes, kidney disease, obesity, or depression, or those with limited sun exposure, especially the elderly, are at increased risk of having a deficiency.

T-cell immunity, which primarily targets the viral spike (S) protein, is less like to be affected by SARS-CoV-2 variants and, as a result, can remain effective in preventing severe symptoms associated with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

When a T-cell is exposed to a foreign pathogen, it extends a signalling device or ‘antenna’ known as a vitamin D receptor, with which it searches for vitamin D,”, and if there is an inadequate vitamin D level, “they won’t even begin to mobilize.” In other words, adequate vitamin D is critically important for the activation of T-cells from their inactive naïve state.

How 'killer' T cells could boost COVID immunity in face of new variants

Vitamin D may work via cathelicidins and defensins that can lower viral replication rates and reducing concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines that produce the inflammation that injures the lining of the lungs, leading to pneumonia, as well as increasing concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Vitamin D is required for white blood cell functioning. Vitamin D supports the innate immune system. Vitamin D is a secosteroid which binds to the same ACE 2 binding site as SARS COV 2. Vitamin D modulates a host of functions that are triggered from the ACE 2 receptor.

Oral vitamin D vs. influenza was demonstrated in 400 infants.
Oral vitamin D vs. influenza was shown by a study of 198 healthy adults.

Vitamin D is a key regulator of host defense against infections by activating genes and pathways that enhance (regulateinnate and adaptive immunity. Vitamin D dramatically stimulates the expression of potent anti-microbial peptides such as cathelicidin and defensins, which exist in neutrophils, monocytes, natural killer cells, and in epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract where they play a major role in protecting the lung from infection. Vitamin D will reduce concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines: vitamin D deficiency has been found to contribute to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Vitamin D receptors are present in many cell types including various immune cells such as antigen-presenting-cells, T cells, B cells and monocytes. Vitamin D is a key factor linking innate and adaptive immunity, and both of these functions may be compromised under conditions of vitamin D insufficiency. Vitamin D up-regulates anti-microbial peptides.

Oral vitamin D appears able to suppress autoimmune diseases (especially combined with vitamin A).

If you supplement vitamin D, take it with a bit of fat2000 IU is optimum for most. The obese may benefit from 4,000 IU or as much as 10,000 IU per day. Dr Fauci is said to personally take 6000 IU of vitamin D daily. Make sure magnesium is adequate. Not only did males with the highest levels of active vitamin D in their blood have the greatest microbiome diversity, but also their gut harbored more friendly bacterial species that produce butyrate. So eat fiber and resistant starch.

Excessive oral vitamin D is immunosuppressive, and it can also cause too much calcium to build up in the body (hypercalcaemia). It is likely that in order to achieve the recommended 50 to 80 ng/ml level, you will also need to a high quality vitamin K supplement, and a well absorbed magnesium supplement. Why? These two are necessary to assimilate the vitamin D properly, and not cause issues like elevated calcium. Vitamin K helps calcium be deposited to your bones and not in your arteries! Taking too much may cause nausea, cramps, and feeling confused.

For those who are vitamin D deficient and feel like COVID-19 may be beginning, Dr. Thornburg describes that an adult should treat a cold/flu within 24 to 36 hours after onset with 50,000 IU of vitamin D3 once daily for 3 days (that’s a total of 150,000 IU over three days). But single large doses of vitamin D may not have the protective effect of previous, more moderate dosing.

Given that sun exposure-derived vitamin D is self-limiting, excessive vitamin D levels can be avoided. It seems likely that moderate sun exposure (without burning or excessive tanning) is the best method of getting adequate vitamin D, and boosting long-term (but not short-term) immunity. But about 1/3, if not 1/2 of people have enzyme defects that will not allow conversion of a cholesterol metabolite into vitamin D. The elderly and dark-skinned also have decreased capacity of human skin to produce vitamin D3. When one’s shadow is equal to one’s height, sun-derived vitamin D will not happen. The effects of sun exposure persist for months in most people. See the section below about sun exposure.


Sun exposure boosts infection-fighting T cells, independently of vitamin D synthesis. T cells may help against new COVID variants.

Vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant that helps the body fight off infection. Foods rich in vitamin E include nuts, seeds and spinach. While vitamin E deficiency is rarely seen, both animal and human studies suggest that intake above currently recommended levels may help restore T cell function which becomes impaired with aging. Do not supplement vitamin E, but get it from nuts and seeds.

Exercise can help prevent COVID-19, prevent severe COVID-19, and may even prevent Long Covid. Exercise in almost any amount can cut the risk of severe or fatal COVID even among high-risk patients like those with high blood pressure or heart disease. Studies show that exercise favorably influences the immune system in healthy individuals (neutrophils, monocytes, natural killer cells, T-cells, and a number of cytokines). Exercise helps to recruit highly specialized immune cells—such as natural killer cells and T cells—find pathogens (like viruses) and wipe them out. Repeated exercise was shown to be beneficial through limiting the accumulation of senescent and exhausted CD8+ T cells. This outcome is likely related to exercise-induced preferential mobilization of senescent T cells.

The protective effect of exercise levels off at about 500 MET-min per week. Here is an explanation of METs. Two doctors explain this study.

How (and when) to start exercising again after COVID-19 | Nebraska Medicine Omaha, NE

Higher levels of daily physical activity are associated with reduced susceptibility to upper respiratory tract infections such as the common cold, suggests a study of 104 Polish children published in Pediatric Research.

Dr. Roger Seheult explains, in this video, that exercise at high levels of exertion can make one vulnerable to communicable diseases. The biggest immune boost is from consistent moderate exercise.

Zinc is essential for multiple cellular functions including immunity.

Zinc functions as a modulator of the immune response. Even mild to moderate degrees of zinc deficiency can impair macrophage and neutrophil functions, natural killer cell activity, and complement activity [50]. The body requires zinc to develop and activate T-lymphocytes [251]. Individuals with low zinc levels have shown reduced lymphocyte proliferation response to mitogens and other adverse alterations in immunity that can be corrected by zinc supplementation.

In COVID-19 patients, oral zinc can decrease 30-day death, ICU admission rate and can shorten symptom duration.

Zinc may help prevent pneumonia in the elderly.

Zinc may prevent out-of-control inflammation that can be damaging and even deadly.

Zinc deficiency causes significant impairment in both adaptive and innate immune responses, and promotes systemic inflammation. Zinc deficiency also affects development of acquired immunity by preventing both the outgrowth and certain functions of T lymphocytes such as activation, Th1 cytokine production, and B lymphocyte help. Likewise, B lymphocyte development and antibody production, particularly immunoglobulin G, are compromised when zinc is insufficient.

Zinc versusinfluenza, and 75mg/day might shorten duration of colds, but more than 100 mg offered no additional benefit. Zinc lozenges should not contain citric acid, tartaric acid, glycine, mannitol, or sorbital, all of which bind to zinc. An never put zinc up one’s nose: that can lead to permanent loss of sense of smell.

Not too much: a 50 mg zinc supplement may be too much if taken daily. The recommended amount is 11 mg for men and 8 mg for women, and it can deplete copper. The top daily intake is 40 mg. Excess zinc reduced the function of T cells, a type of a white blood cell. Too much zinc can inhibit interleukin-1-dependent T cell stimulation. There are a lot of other nasty side effects of too much zinc. Those who live in rich countries may need to be even more cautious of zinc supplementation, because zinc may not be deficient to begin with.

Zinc deficiency may show up on ones finger nails. Soda depletes zinc.

Here are plant food sources of zinc. Quercetin and green tea may help zinc cross cell membranes within the body.

Here are tips on avoiding infectious disease.

Air pollution may make COVID-19 more lethal, even at “healthy” (low) levels. Air pollution has been correlated with COVID-19 spikes.

Air purifiers in a confined space may do more harm than good. The investigators found the risk of airborne virus transmission is lowest for low ventilation rates. “Our results show that installing an air purifier may increase the droplet spread,” Drikakis said. “The air intake integrated inside the purifier equipment induces flow circulation that can add to the transport of contaminated saliva droplets in the cabin.”

Airborne herbal immunity supplement is a scam.

Sugar, alcohol, and tobacco are immunosuppressants, fruits and vegetables help support and protect your immune system by providing the nutrition it needs.

Alcohol, especially in excessis bad news. If you drink small amounts every day, → immunity suffers:

Alcohol has a profound effect of inhibiting interferon production in monocytes. When the alcohol-influenced cells were exposed to a virus mimic, they produced only a quarter as much of the virus-fighting signalling molecule called type-1 interferon as teetotal monocytes made. Impaired type I interferon innate immune response has been linked to more severe COVID-19 infection. Interferon is pivotal, the first response to any viral infection – there’s no viral elimination without it. Drinking alcohol can damage the body’s dendritic cells, a vital component of the immune system.

Alcohol’s combined effects on both innate and adaptive immunity significantly weaken host defenses, predisposing chronic drinkers to a wide range of health problems, including infections and systemic inflammation. In addition to pneumonia, alcohol consumption has been linked to pulmonary diseases, including tuberculosis, respiratory syncytial virus, and ARDS. Alcohol disrupts ciliary function in the upper airways, impairs the function of immune cells (i.e., alveolar macrophages and neutrophils), and weakens the barrier function of the epithelia in the lower airways (see the article by Simet and Sisson). Often, the alcohol-provoked lung damage goes undetected until a second insult, such as a respiratory infection, leads to more severe lung diseases than those seen in nondrinkers.

Alfalfa vs. autoimmunity – in mice?

α-ketoglutarate (AKG) is a precursor of glutamine which functions as an immunomodulatory molecule, and takes part in proper function of intestines. Glutamine is an important fuel for lymphocytes and macrophages. During inflammatory states such as sepsis and injury, the consumption of glutamine by circulating and immune cells increases. Here are foods high in glutamine.

Andrographis might stimulate the immune system. It might help treat influenza.

Antibacterial soaps are bad news. Antibiotic treatment of infections does not help with viral infections, but may exacerbate viral infections. Antibiotics may wipe out gut bacteria that keep the influenza virus from spreading. Taking antibiotics for viral illness can cause bacterial antibiotic resistance.

Antibiotics, alcohol, and junk food → autoimmune diseases.
Antibiotics dark side.

Antioxidants– best got by a plant-based diet – NOT antioxidant pills. Vitamin supplements aren’t

beneficial to your immune system unless you are deficient.

Anxiety can weaken the immune system.

This study of 48,440 adult patients found that consistently meeting physical activity guidelines was strongly associated with a reduced risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes among infected adults.

Hand washing

Hand washing (insist on it when hospitalized) – for 20 seconds. Wash your hands like you just got done slicing jalapenos for some nachos and you need to take your contacts out.

This systematic review and meta-analysis shows that and washing is still important for avoiding COVID-19 infections.

Cold water is just as effective as hot/warm water.

How to make your own hand sanitizer. Keep hand sanitizer dispensers away from toddlers.

Reject non-alcohol hand sanitizers.

Happiness may boost the immune system. Happy people enjoy low levels of inflammatory gene expression and strong expression of antiviral and antibody genes. Persistent bitterness can cause illness.

Heavy metals can cause immunologic disorders. A plant-based diet can help avoid, and detoxify mercury, lead, and cadmium.

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) (the virus that normally causes cold sores) be linked tosevere COVID-19.

High indoor humidity versus influenza, vs. norovirus, vs. covid-19.

Paul Stamets’ Host Defense is unreliable, low quality.

Hugs → lower stress → better immmunity.

Humming vs. chronic rhinosinusitis and allergic rhinitis.

Hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) is a poisonous gas that, when produced endogenously (via calorie restriction, cysteine restriction, and methionine restriction (sulfur sources)), provides immune system (and other) benefits including reduce H2S-induced inflammation and lower blood pressure. It may be a bit counterintuitive that restricting sulfur-containing cysteine and methionine can boost endogenous H₂S production, but that is where the evidence points! Beef: it’s what’s rotting in your colon!

Hydrotherapy (hot and cold water) for whatever ails one. Here is a (hydrotherapy)site mentioned by Dr. Seheult. Also relevant is this site: Cold water therapy candemarginate white blood cells from the vascular wall and microvasculature into the main circulation, significantly elevating the effective white blood cell count. Exposure to cold water has a long history. A sauna or a hot shower may improve interferon status by simulating a fever. A hot shower followed by acold shower (contrasting shower) is suggested by Dr. Suheult for stimulating immunity.

Pre-existing chronic inflammation, as reflected in a high C-reactive protein (CRP) level, is predictive of a tragic COVID-19 outcome in the form a cytokine storm. This may be one reason why the elderly have poor COVID-19 outcomes. A vegan diet provides for low chronic inflammation via gut bacteria. Here are vitamins and supplements to fight chronic inflammation. Fermented foods may be valuable in countering the decreased microbiome diversity and increased inflammation pervasive in industrialized society.

Butyrate production (from resistant starch) has been correlated to the capacity to induce IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine.

The level on one’s chronic inflammation can predict the occurrence of immune system decline in otherwise healthy individuals.

The innate immune system may be more important for those who get COVID-19 than the adaptive immune system.

Avoid iron overloadheme iron is especially problematic because it is absorbed at a constant rateregardless of iron status, unlike non-heme (plant-based) iron sources. Iron is required, though, for innate immunity. Iron is necessary for immune cells, particularly lymphocytes, associated with the generation of a specific response to infection. But excess iron could potentially facilitate the development of infections and the invasion of tumoral cells.

A high serum ferritin level is predictive of a tragic COVID-19 infection outcome via a cytokine storm.

plant-based diet is beneficial in reducing serum ferritin level. A study reported that vegetarian females had lower metabolic syndrome incidence, which was related with lower serum ferritin level compared to non-vegetarians. Intake of red meat and iron supplements – especially when combined with vitamin C, promotes a high ferritin level.

Get an influenza shot, or nasal spray, and look forward to it, despite any decreased effectiveness.

Laughter is medicinal.

Licorice root features glycyrrhizin which may inhibit influenza virus replication, but not too much!

Limonene boosted phagocytic activity in rats, found in lemons and cannabis.

Waiting room magazines are filthy.

Healthy people who undergo a single session of Swedish Massage experienced measureable changes in their body’s immune and endocrine response.

mTor activation → autoimmune diseases

mTOR is activated by ArgininesupplementationOvernutrition (eating too much), and too muchprotein.

Magnesium is important for innate and acquiredimmune response.

Meat → autoimmunediseases. There is fecal bacteria in meat glue. A study of 475,000 UK adults showed that higher consumption of unprocessed red meat and processed meat was associated with higher risk of pneumonia.

There are antibiotic-resistant bacteria and viruses in chicken.

Meditation: – may work, in part, by reducingstress (see below). Anxiety canweaken the immune system.

Shown by a study of154 adults.

Mindfulness meditation mightaffect markers of inflammation, cell-mediated immunity.



Many data suggest the existence of both nuclear and membrane receptors for melatonin in the immune system. Melatonin stimulates the production of progenitor cells for granulocytes-macrophages. It also stimulates the production of NK cells and CD4+ cells and inhibits CD8+ cells. Melatonin acts through lymphocyte receptors, and perhaps, receptors on other immune tissues, to modulate immune cells. Many data suggest the existence of both nuclear and membrane receptors for melatonin in the immune system. Melatonin may be useful for autoimmune diseases. Melatonin declines with age: those who are young probably have plenty.

Analysis of patient data from Cleveland Clinic’s COVID-19 registry also revealed that melatonin usage was associated with a nearly 30 percent reduced likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) after adjusting for age, race, smoking history, and various disease comorbidities. This was just a preliminary observational study. It could be that people to take melatonin are more health conscious.

Melatonin was found to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 entry into mice brains

Melatonin supplements can prevent pathophysiological consequences of COVID-19 disease.

Near-infrared radiation can, due to it’s longer wavelength, penetrate deep into the skin, even through clothing. This increases the production of mid-day melatonin which will quench the oxidative stress that is otherwise seen by the mitochondria when sick with viral illness including COVID-19. This melatonin also upregulates gluthione peroxidase, another important endogenous antioxidant.

Melatonin produced in this way acts differently from melatonin produced by the pineal gland in the evening hours in response to dim light.

It has now been shown that the mitochondria produce melatonin in many cells in quantities which are order of magnitude higher than that produced in the pineal gland. This subcellular melatonin does not necessarily fluctuate with our circadian clock or release into the circulation system, but instead has been proposed to be consumed locally ikn response to the free radical density within each cell, in particular in response to Near Infrared (NIR) exposure.

Angiotensin-II which is a pro-oxidant, is converted into angiotensin-1,7 which is anti-oxidant. The enzyme that does this is ACE-2. This is the same ACE-2 that is the receptor for the spike protein. Infection with SARS-CoV-2 knocks out the ACE-2 enzyme by binding to it, resulting in an increase in angiotensin-II and a decrease in angiotensin-1,7, increasing oxidative stress. This is why both day and night-time melatonin is so important.

Near-infrared light can also directly inhibit inflammation due the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.

Mercury from fish → autoimmune diseases.


Dietary intake of Agaricus bisporus (white button) mushroom accelerates salivary immunoglobulin A secretion in healthy volunteers.

Most mushrooms, including the common white button, feature ergothionene.

White button mushrooms show immunostimulatory activity on human THP-1 derived macrophages.

White button mushrooms feature lectins which are immunomodulatory.

Mushrooms can boost your immune system - eight antioxidants |

Music was shown to benefit immunity by a review of over 400 research papers in the neurochemistry of music.

Methylene Blue may be able to protect against (potentially deadly) Black Fungus.

Treating patients infected with COVID‐19 with glutathione and NAD+ precursors can restore metabolic function and thus aid the recovery of COVID‐19 patients. lead to a more rapid symptom‐free recovery, suggesting a role for such a therapeutic regime in the treatment of infections leading to respiratory problems.

Nasal sprays are a promising approach to preventing and treating viral infections

COVID-19 starts in the nose. Nasal sprays that are based on povidone-iodine, hydrogen peroxide, cyclodextrins, and the synthetic drug PUL-042 may helpprevent infection while one is, for instance, travelling by air. There was a letter to the editor suggesting that a statin-based nasal spray or mouthwash might help. A xylitol and grapefruit seed extract nasal spray could help COVID-19 patients.

Xlear is filing a Pre-Emergency Use Authorization (Pre-EUA) Request with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The Pre-EUA is a first step in seeking authorization of Xlear Nasal Spray as a new hygiene tool to help in combat the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the virus that causes COVID-19.

While all the above is being sorted out, a plain-old saline nasal spray might work well in risky situations.

In a study recently published in the European Respiratory Journal, the drug, known as INNA-X, is shown to be effective in a pre-clinical infection model and in human airway cells. “Consistent with what we have reported for other respiratory viruses including SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19), INNA-X treatment prior to infection reduced the level of virus in the respiratory tract,” Associate Professor Bartlett said.

Ibuprofen and other widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may inhibit antibody production in human cells.(non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs).

Oats may be immunomodulatory.

Omega-3/omega-6 fats ratio vs auto-immune diseases.

Oral health: periodontitis may increase the severity of a COVID-19 infection.

Elevated exposures in children to perfluorinated (PFAS) compounds, which are widely used in manufacturing and food packaging, were associated with lower antibody responses and more severe COVID-19 infections.

PFAS exposure is associated with decreased infant and fetal growth as well as decreased antibody response to vaccines in both adults and children.

Here are sources of PFAS. 

  • Stay away from stain-resistant carpets and upholstery, and don’t use waterproofing sprays.
  • Look for the ingredient PTFE or other “fluoro” ingredients on product labels.
  • Avoid nonstick cookware. Instead use cast-iron, stainless steel, glass or enamel products.
  • Boycott takeout containers and other food packaging. Instead cook at home and eat more fresh foods
  • Don’t eat microwave popcorn or greasy foods wrapped in paper.
  • Choose uncoated nylon or silk dental floss or one that is coated in natural wax.

Better Immunity  with a Plant-based diet

This video, sponsored by New Scientist, states: “Most of our immune cells are in our gut microbiome. A healthy immune system means a heathy gut microbiome. To do that:

  • Increase the diversity of plant food in your diet.
  • Eat the rainbow.
  • Eat more fermented foods.
  • Fast overnight for at least 12-14 hours.
  • Reduce ultra-processed foods.

Ultra-processed foods are covered in this blog post.

Flavonoids are antiviral. Flavonoids are abundant in plant foods.

What are Flavonoids? Here is What You Need to Know! | Vaya News


During the COVID-19 pandemic, it is very important to make a reasonable effort to choose a balanced diet, consuming fruits and vegetables, undertake physical activities during leisure hours, strive to sustain a proper weight, and get enough sleep.

Good nutrition is important for immunity. High vitamin A, E, and D intake may be linked to fewer respiratory complaints in adults. The high rate of consumption of diets high in saturated fats, sugars, and refined carbohydrates (collectively called Western diet – WD) worldwide, contribute to the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, and could place these populations at an increased risk for severe COVID-19 pathology and mortality. WD consumption can induce a lipotoxic state. This triggers activation of canonical inflammatory signaling pathways that produce proinflammatory mediators and other effectors of the innate immune system and impairs adaptive immunity, leading to chronic inflammation and impaired host defense against viruses. Furthermore, peripheral inflammation caused by COVID-19 may have long-term consequences in those that recover, leading to chronic medical conditions such as dementia and neurodegenerative disease, likely through neuroinflammatory mechanisms that can be compounded by an unhealthy diet. Thus, now more than ever, wider access to healthy foods should be a top priority and individuals should be mindful of healthy eating habits to reduce susceptibility to and long-term complications from COVID-19.

In this study of 592 571 participants it was found that a diet characterised by healthy plant-based foods was associated with lower risk and severity of COVID-19.

This (Harvard Medical School and King’s College, London) six country study of almost 600,000 health care workers with frequent exposure to COVID-19, concluded that plant-based diets or pescatarian diets were associated with lower odds of moderate-to-severe COVID-19. These dietary patterns may be considered for protection against severe COVID-19.

Good nutrition supplies Vitamins A, B6, B12, folate, C, D and E, trace elements including zinc, copper, selenium and iron, amino acids, and fatty acids. Cell-mediated immunity is affected by folate deficiency: the blastogenic response of T lymphocytes to certain mitogens is decreased in folate-deficient humans and animals. Leafy greens and beans are sources of dietary folate.

A whole-food, unprocessed, plant-based diet can reduce intestinal inflammation, improve immunity.

Consume a whole-food, variedunprocessedvaried, plant–based (vegan) diet.

Include oatmeal and otherwhole (best intactgrainsand coffee – prebiotics.

A plant-based diet can supplydietary (better than supplemental) fiber, and complex carbs. Dietary fiber is what nourishes good gut bugs. Eat like a ruralAfrican. Dietary fiber can boost immunity. Fiber beats probiotics. A high-soluble fiber diet (beans, for instance) will result in butyrate, as well as beneficial gut bugs.

Include dietary polyphenols – colorful fruits and veggies, spices, tea, and cocoa.

Cranberries are an excellent source of polyphenols.

A bit of (polyphenol-rich) red wine might help,

Consume adequate protein, to supply nitrogen.

Dietary sulfur is important: eat cruciferous veggies.

A whole-food plant-based diet is more effective than probiotics.

Eat asparagus– a prebiotic.

Kale (cooked is best) is a cruciferous veggie that also causes immunoglobulin (Ig) production stimulating activity in human hybridoma HB4C5 cells and human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

Gold kiwi fruit for the common cold?

Fermented foods via D-phenyllactic acid (D-PLA), vs. upper respiratory infections. Fermented foods feature lactic acidbacteriasuchas in raw sauerkraut.

Fructose causes the immune system to become inflamed. This process, in turn, produces more reactive molecules, which are associated with inflammation.

Specifically, this sugar adjusts cellular metabolic pathways to promote the production of more reactive inflammatory cytokines.

 A whole-food plant-based diet to protect against viral infections:

Via a happier disposition (evidence here)

Carotenes boost natural killer (NK) cell activity  and reduce chronic inflammation (best from diet – not from supplements).

Via lymphoid cells (ILCs).

Via lower chronic inflammation by increased antioxidants and dietary polyphenols.

Greenveggies will provide lutein

A plant-base diet versus lupus.

A plant-base diet versus autoimmune diseases

Soluble fiber abundant in citrus fruits, apples, oats, barley and legumes may help fight inflammation.

Blue berries increase natural killer cell counts. Red grapes and blueberries may enhance immune function.

Plant-based immune-boosting nutritional goodies include beta-carotene, vitamin A,vitamin C, vitamin K, and vitamin E. Also curcumin, cinnamaldehyde, probiotics, selenium, lactoferrin, quercetin. Supplemental quercetin may be prophylactic vs. COVID-19 infection. Quercetin, as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic and inflammatory compound, is probably a potential treatment for severe inflammation and one of the main life-threatening conditions in patients with COVID-19.

Less pathogenic  bugs in the gut.

Plant fiber for short-chain fatty acids: SCFAs influence gastrointestinal epithelial cell integrity, glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism, appetite regulation, and immune function. Akkermansia muciniphila gut bugs, increased by ahighfiber diet anddietary polyphenols. Plant-basedfiber vs. gut infections.

Include cooked tomatoes and other veggies.

The mechanisms by which each of the nutrients named above support the immune system include the strengthening of  innate immune responses and antioxidant systems. …eating well and keeping a healthy weight will help the immune system cope better with the demands placed on the body before, during and after COVID-19 infection.

The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2) is a facilitator of amino acid transport, and the SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 receptor. ACE converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II but ACE2 catalyses the conversion of angiotensin II to angiotensin and is also the main entry point for coronavirus 2 into cells. Dietary patterns have a strong effect on ACE levels. A high-saturated fat diet increases ACE. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2) is a facilitator of amino acid transport, and the SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 receptor. ACE converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II but ACE2 catalyses the conversion of angiotensin II to angiotensin and is also the main entry point for coronavirus 2 into cells. Dietary patterns have a strong effect on ACE levels.

This  prospective cohort study of 592,571 participants showed that a diet characterised by healthy plant-based foods was associated with lower risk and severity of COVID-19.

In six countries, plant-based diets or pescatarian diets were associated with lower odds of moderate-to-severe COVID-19. These dietary patterns may be considered for protection against severe COVID-19.

In any case, one should avoid the western diet.

Fatty food can weaken the immune system. Fatty food injures via an unhealthygut microbiome. A reduction in total fat intake has been found to enhance immune response (IR) in humans. Saturated fat may be especially worth avoiding. Saturated fat may inhibit T cell proliferation, inhibit lymphocyte proliferation, and decrease T helper and increase T suppressor/cytoxic cell proliferation. Gram-negative gut bacteria are troublesome and drug-resistant, so avoid obesity, and avoid a high-fat (fast food) diet. boosted.

Immunosuppressive foods and drinks slow immune function: sugar, excessive caffeine, and alcoholic beverages are common culprits. 

Increased consumption of highly processed foods, which appear to be having an increased content of fat, sugar, and salt, can have a detrimental impact on the immune system, the overall physical and mental health, and the global well-being of individuals.
Eating a high-fat, high-sugarwestern diet causes damage to Paneth cells, immune cells in the gut that help keep inflammation in check. When Paneth cells aren’t functioning properly, the gut immune system is excessively prone to inflammation, putting people at risk of inflammatory bowel disease and undermining effective control of disease-causing microbes.
People who consume sugar and other simple carbohydrates in excess over a long period of time have an increased risk of developing an autoimmune disease. In affected patients, the immune system attacks the body’s own tissue and the consequences are, for example, chronic inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, type 1 diabetes and chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland.
When a plant-based diet is combined with fried food, sweets, refined grains, red meat and processed meat, benefits are diminished, with increased risk of severe COVID-19.

Pets can get COVID-19. For example, hamsters. Also rarely dogs and cats.

Phthalates, acting as endocrine disruptors, can weaken immunity. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer which depressed T cell-mediated immunity in mice.

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) can cause immune problems.

A positive mental attitude for better immunity.

Prebiotics may improve the immune system, by increasing the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, while reducing the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines.

β2-1 fructans may have beneficial effects upon immune function.

Prebiotics may improve cold and influenza symptoms.

Preservatives widely used in processed foods can weaken the immune system.

Propolis may be immunomodulatory.

Propolis versus influenza

Eat adequate protein, but not much more than 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight.

Restaurant employees often fail to wash their hands. Food at highly rated restaurants can be a source of Staphylococcus aureus.

Excessive salt consumption → autoimmune diseases.

Less salt vs. non-communicable diseases.
Less salt for better immunity. Too much salt can severely disrupt the energy balance in immune cells and stop them from working properly.

A gel hand sanitizer may useful when travelling by air.

Some studies have shown that selenium enhanced immune competence and resistance to viral infections and in animal models and human studies. Selenium may also slow down an immune over-response, which may be useful in avoiding excessive inflammation when sick. In the United States, selenium deficiency is rare.
Some dietary sources of selenium are rice, beans, whole grains, garlic and brazil nutsWestern soil tends to be rich in selenium.
Diabetes caution when supplementing selenium.

Senolytics reduce coronavirus-related mortality in old mice.

Sex keeps the immune system humming. Masturbation improves immune functioning by increasing cortisol levels, which can regulate immune functioning in small doses. Orgasms, by any means.

Silicon may benefit the immune system, and may have a modulating effect on the immune or inflammatory response.

Dietary sources of silicon are barley, oats, whole wheat, nuts, dried fruit, bananas, root vegetables, spinach, and red lentils.

Sirtuinsare signallingproteins that are anti-viral: All sirtuins are associated with fasting, exercise, and a low-calorie diet.
Sirt3 responds to caloric restriction (CR), fastingand exercise.

Polyphenols and intermittent fasting will upregulate sirtuins. Intake of dietarypolyphenols including curcumin, may increase SIRT1 activity. (Supplementing with resveratrol is not recommended).
Sirt1 is dependent on NAD+: Exercise restores levels of NAMPT andNAD+.
Exercise training may enhance SIRT1 longevity signaling.
SIRT1 has beenassociatedwith a lowcaloriediet, glucose restriction, and intermittentfasting.
DHA, from fish oil might also increase SIRT1 activity.
Endogenous or supplemental (in rats) melatonin may increase SIRT1 activity.
SIRT6 could act as a master regulator of immune cell metabolism and function by regulating critical signaling pathways.
Calorie restriction, exercise, fisetin, fucoidan, luteolin, and egothioneine will cause Sirt6 expression.

Sinus  infections can be bacterial or viral, regardless: antibiotics will probably not help.

Quality sleep benefits immunity: The induction of a hormonal constellation that supports immune functions is one likely mechanism underlying the immune-supporting effects of sleep. This is how much one should sleep. Shown by a study of 164 healthy men and women.
If mice are any indication: quality sleep is beneficial.
Chronic sleep deprivation suppresses the immune system.
Sleep deprivation increasessusceptibility to the common cold.
Sleep may strengthen long-term memories in the immune system.
Reducing sleep duration to four hours results in a 70% reduction in natural killer cells.
nap may help if sleep is poor.


Be slim: Obesity has been an independent risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality following infection with the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus. Obesity might promotes immunological decline through several mechanisms, with dysfunctional adipose tissue as a driving factor. Now we have data that obesity markedly increases the risk of death anddisability from COVID-19Obese COVID-19 patients were more than twice as likely to require hospitalization than non-obese patients, about 1.75 times more likely to require a stay in an intensive-care unit, and 1.5 times more likely to die. Severe forms of COVID-19 are associated with high visceral adiposity in European adults. On the basis of an exploratory analysis ACE 2 in the visceral fat may be a trigger for the cytokine storm. This report lists the reasons why obesity, including (merely) overweight, is such a COVID-19 hazard. High uric acid may be one reason why the obese are at more serious risk of COVID-19.

Consider all of the references here. Anybody who is obese really needs to be vaccinated and shed a few pounds. Obesity may prolong a battle with SARS-CoV-2, because the obese suffer from higher viral load. SARS-CoV-2 infection induces neutralizing antibodies in all lean but only in few obese COVID-19 patients. Obese people have a tougher time fighting COVID-19, even if they have a milder form of the virus. Infected body fat could contribute to “long COVID,” which has led to symptoms that last for weeks or months after someone has recovered from a coronavirus infection.

One study showed that the obese may be 46% more likely to contract COVID-19. People with obesity who contracted SARS-CoV-2 were 113% more likely than people of healthy weight to land in the hospital, 74% more likely to be admitted to an ICU, and 48% more likely to die. Researchers studying young obese mice found that expression of ACE2, a receptor in host cells that binds to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is higher in the lungs and trachea of obese mice. The finding could partly explain why obesity is a high-risk factor for COVID-19. Those who are obese suffer decreased interferon-α and interferon-β production.

This meta-analysis of 75 studies also shows that individuals with obesity were more at risk for COVID-19 positive, for hospitalization, for ICU admission, and for mortality. A major concern is that vaccines will be less effective for the individuals with obesity. Infected body fat could contribute to “long COVID,” which has led to symptoms that last for weeks or months after someone has recovered from a coronavirus infection.

Obesity and the Immune System - Obesity Action Coalition

Obesity, like other states of malnutrition, is known to impair the immune function, altering leucocyte counts as well as cell-mediated immune responses. Adipokines are crucial players not only in energy metabolism but also in inflammation and immunity, most of them being increased in obesity and contributing to the associated ‘low-grade inflammatory state’. There is a substantial impact that obesity has on immunity and pathogen defense, including the disruption of lymphoid tissue integrity, alterations in leukocyte development, phenotypes, and activity; and the coordination of innate and adaptive immune responses. Obesity is associated with alteration in cellular immunity in both animal and human studies. Dysregulation of leptin may also be a culprit. Obesity impairs the adaptive immune response to influenza virus. Vaccinated obese adults are twice as likely to develop influenza and influenza-like illness compared with healthy weight adults. Shedding just 10 pounds could straighten out an off-balance immune system.

Social Distancing

Social distancing at six feet or even 8 meters (a single virus particle can cause infection) during a pandemic is, of course, good advice: it worked well in Hong Kong. The Denver Post is also on board with 8 meters. Six feet is notenoughespecially indoors. One does not need to cough or sneeze: aerosolization of virus from normal breathing or speaking will generate aerosols. Such small droplets can carry their viral content meters, even tens of meters, away from the infected person. The 6-foot social-distancing rule is based on nearly 80-year-old science. Small droplets were previously considered harmless, but this is clearly wrong,”Even when the water droplet has evaporated, an aerosol particle remains, which can contain the virus. This allows viruses to spread over distances of several meters and remain airborne for long time.”

Once inhaled, virus-laden aerosols can deposit in different parts of the respiratory tract. Larger aerosols tend to be deposited in the upper airway; however, smaller aerosols, although they can also be deposited there, can penetrate deep into the alveolar region of the lungs.

About 85 percent of coronavirus RNA detected in COVID-19 patients’ breath was found in fine aerosol particles less than five micrometers in size.

The risk of being exposed to Covid-19 indoors is as great at 60 feet as it is at 6 feet. Vigorous activity increases risk, and risk is dramatically reduced by the use of face masks. 

Superspreading plays a dominant role in COVID-19 transmission, so that a small fraction of infected people causes a large proportion of new COVID-19 cases. Reducing random contacts—such as those that occur at sporting events, restaurants, bars, and the like—can control the outbreak at population scales.

Scientists at MIT and Oxford have created a traffic-light system to use instead. If you double your distance, you generally double your protection. Dining is restaurants is riskyLockdownshave workedwell to lower the rate of infections. The harm caused by lockdowns is less than the harm caused by COVID-19. Dr. Fauci thinks that we should never shake hands again. Infected runners and bike riders can leave a “slipstream” of virus-laden droplets behind. But covid-19 transmission outdoors may be rare, but still dangerous, so wear a mask and be distantoutdoors. Sars-CoV-2 can be spread by asymptomatic people and also before symptom onset. Super-spreading events are especially important in understanding COVID-19 spread.

Social distancing and mask wearing have made influenza much less of a problem. Likewise, acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is also declining. Lessons from the 1918 pandemic have been ignored. COVID-19 spreads by breathing.

Consider this rubber band fix for masks:

Longer time spent at home during COVID-19 pandemic is associated with binge drinking among US adults. Increased alcohol use among women, especially, has become a worse problem. Many have found gardening to be a respite to social isolation.

Absent a pandemic, being social, may provide more resistance to infection. Social isolation may increase stress, which slows the body’s immune response and ability to heal quickly. Loneliness, like chronic stress, taxes the immune system. Never before have we experienced social isolation on a massive scale as we have during the evolving COVID-19 pandemic. A new paper published in the journal Trends in Cognitive Sciences explores the wide-ranging, negative consequences that social isolation has on our psychological well-being and physical health, including decreased life span. The journal New Scientist calls it social capital.

Psychological distress, including depression, anxiety, worry, perceived stress, and loneliness, before COVID-19 infection was associated with an increased risk of long COVID

Smoking tobacco reduces immunity. Smoking tobacco is associated with an increased risk of worse COVID-19 symptoms including long COVID. Tobacco smoking increases lung entry points for COVID-19. Smoking tobacco is predictive of severe COVID-19. Any kind of smoke will reduce immunity, or cause autoimmunity E-cigarettes and vaping will also weaken immunity.

Spermidine has been shown to reverse the senescence of old human B cells.

Minimize consumption of simple carbs (which quickly turn to that horrible evil sugar) – including orange juice.

Sugar is a simple carb.

Do not trust LED-based “UV” sterilizers.

Stevia may aid immunity, and may be immunomodulatory, but dot not consume too much.

Chronic stress

Minimize chronic stress: Long-term stress suppresses or dysregulates innate and adaptive immune responses by altering the Type 1-Type 2 cytokine balance, inducing low-grade chronic inflammation, and suppressing numbers, trafficking, and function of immunoprotective cells. Chronic stress results in glucocorticoid receptor resistance (GCR). Those with GCR were at higher risk of subsequently developing a cold. Greater GCR also predicted the production of more local proinflammatory cytokines among infected subjects..

Chronic stress dampens the natural killer cell response.

Chronic stress→ chronicinflammation.

Chronic stress→ autoimmune diseases.

But some stress is good.

Stress, sleep deprivation, and loneliness all compromise immunity via inflammation.

Researchers have found that, while participants in general report greater stress levels during the pandemic, individuals with a harmony-with-nature worldview were coping better regardless of whether they lived in Japan or in the United States.

The damaging effects of chronic stress can be fixed with moderate exercise and dietary polyphenols.


Moderate sun exposure (which also benefits autoimmune diseases via ultraviolet light) will help immunity, perhaps independent of vitamin D. Sun exposure, sans vitamin D, vs. COVID-19.

Seasonal variations in sun exposure may explain the seasonality of influenza.

Sun exposure boosts infection-fighting T cells, independently of vitamin D synthesis. T cells may help against new COVID variants.

Sun exposure versus influenzapneumonia, autoimmune diseases:

In the above sun exposure studies, blood levels of vitamin D is indicative of sun exposure, but vitamin D may not be the only active principle. Sun exposure also energizes infection-fighting T-cellsShort-term effects of excessive sun exposureare immunosuppressivefor a period of at least three days, but long-term, sun exposure is supportiveof immune function via ultraviolet light. My feeling is that if one limits daily sun exposure to 10-15 minutes (in summer – more in winter) one can avoid the short-term immunosuppressive effect and still enjoy the long-term immune-boost. Sunburn trashes the immune system and, of course, can cause skin cancer.

Near-infrared radiation can, due to it’s longer wavelength, penetrate deep into the skin, even through clothing. This increases the production of mid-day melatonin which will quench the oxidative stress that is otherwise seen by the mitochondria when sick with viral illness including COVID-19. This melatonin also upregulates gluthione peroxidase, another important endogenous antioxidant.

Melatonin produced in this way acts differently from melatonin produced by the pineal gland in the evening hours in response to dim light.

Angiotensin-II which is a pro-oxidant, is converted into angiotensin-1,7 which is anti-oxidant. The enzyme that does this is ACE-2. This is the same ACE-2 that is the receptor for the spike protein. Infection with SARS-CoV-2 knocks out the ACE-2 enzyme by binding to it, resulting in an increase in angiotensin-II and a decrease in angiotensin-1,7, increasing oxidative stress. This is why both day and night-time melatonin is so important.

Roger Seheult, MD explains the importance of the innate immune system versus the BA.5 variant that blows past prior infection and vaccination (though it helps reduce mortality). He goes on to explain that exposure to heat (especially) and cold will rev up the innate immune system. Finally, he goes over data on the importance of sun exposure, independent of vitamin D synthesis. 

Protection from prior infection against re-infection from pre-omicron variants was very high and remained high even after 40 weeks. Protection was substantially lower for the omicron BA.1 variant and declined more rapidly over time than protection against previous variants. Protection from severe disease was high for all variants.

Some substances can, when ingested, act to prevent the short-term immunosuppressive effect of sun exposure. Green tea, grape seed extract and silymarin may help.

Sun exposure may exacerbate HPV infection.

Public swimming pools can be hazardous, especially hot tubs.

The food additive tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) (in fast food) may suppress the immune system.

Take care of your throat and everything that supports the self-cleaning powers of the respiratory tract.

Travelling safely.

Tuberculosis and other vaccinations boosts other forms of immunity. TB vaccine vs. other infectious diseases.

Why Vaccinate?

Dr. Mike Hansen explains the scary nature of the Delta variant and argues for vaccination.

The rules change because the science, and the pandemic situation, is dynamic.

Vaccinations, save lives, and are not an autoimmune concern. Flu vaccines carry a killed, or dead, version of the virus. In turn, the body mounts an immune response, but the vaccine cannot cause the flu because the virus is killed. Despite modest effectiveness, the flu vaccine is worth getting. Vaccination is a social responsibility.

Those who exercise regularly will enjoy a more robust response to vaccination.

Much ado is made about vaccine-induced myocarditis, but that threat posed by infection with COVID-19 is greater.

One immediate problem with vaccinations is anxiety. As of April 30, the CDC reports that 64 people affected either fainted or reported dizziness. Some got nauseous or vomited, and a few had racing hearts, chest pain or other symptoms.

Vaccine hesitancy is due to lots of reasons, which must be respected. In countries with a high aggregate level of trust in science, people are more likely to be confident about vaccination, over and above their individual-level scientific trust. Here is a history of vaccine hesitancy.

Side effects to vaccines can be split in to general reactions to the vaccine system and COVID specific reactions. mRNA (messenger RNA) vaccines are likely to have less general problems by their nature – COVID specific problems are likely to be similar.” Nucleic acid vaccines are superior to subunit vaccines in both cellular and antibody response. Antibodies elicited by mRNA vaccines are more specific, more abundant, and more durable than injecting viral proteins directly. The vaccine appears to be equally effective regardless of recipients’ age, sex and ethnicity, according to BioNTech. The coronavirus vaccine doesn’t cause Alzheimer’s or ALS.

The placebo effect typically refers to beneficial effects of a drug that derive from the recipient’s expectations of its effects rather than its biochemistry. The effect can also work in reverse, causing adverse effects comparable to known effects, a phenomenon called the “nocebo” effect. 76% of reported side effects may be due to ‘nocebo’ effect

Research shows vaccines are working well at preventing hospital admissions in UK. But, according to the NY Times, the Johnson&Johnson one-shot vaccine is less effective against the delta variant.

Israelis who recovered from COVID-19 and were vaccinated with a single dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine are far better protected against reinfection than those who only have natural immunity, a large-scale Israeli study found.

Research to date indicates that the Pfizer vaccine is safe for those who are eligible for it. Its manufacturers developed the vaccine according to international safety standards, and the FDATrusted Source and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) have authorized it. Pfizer’s Phase 3 results on thousands of volunteers have additionally undergone external peer review and been published in the New England Journal of Medicine. Each of these independent reviews was incentivized to identify problems, not to gloss them over. It’s also tremendously unlikely that all of them missed a problem related to safety and efficacy.

The Moderna and Pfizer vaccines are among the best vaccines ever created. Although there have been no rigorous studies about whether vaccinated people can spread the virus, experts say it would be surprising if they did. The vaccines are also incredibly effective in the rare cases when people catch Covid-19. Those people come down with only mild cases of the disease, a win in itself. Data from Israel again confirms the efficacy of the Pfizer vaccine.

The Moderna and Pfizer vaccines are “essentially 100 percent effective against serious disease,” Dr. Paul Offit, the director of the Vaccine Education Center at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, said. “It’s ridiculously encouraging.” The degree of protection (10-fold) associated with seropositivity (past infection) appears to becomparable to that observed in the initial reports of the efficacy of mRNA vaccines in large clinical trials. The Moderna (mRNA-1273) vaccine is good for at  leastsix months.

In this case-control study including 6,647733 veterans, 23% of veterans received at least 1 COVID-19 vaccination during the first 3 months of vaccine rollout. Vaccine effectivenes VE) against infection was estimated to be 95% for full vaccination; estimated VE against COVID-19-related hospitalization was 91%, and there were no COVID-19–related deaths among fully vaccinated veterans

Results from a large clinical trial in the United States and South America indicate that AstraZeneca’s COVID-19 vaccine, AZD1222, is well-tolerated and protects against symptomatic COVID-19 disease, including severe disease or hospitalization. Here is another similar report.

This study of 884,828 vaccinated individuals showed, again, the overwhelming safety of the COVID-19 vaccination.

The COVID-19 mRNA-based vaccination also appears to reduce asmptomatic infection by 80-90%. It also reduces viral shedding when breakthrough infections occur. Dangerous new variants also less likely to emerge with more widespread vaccination, especially when non-pharmaceutical interventions and transmission-reducing behaviours remain throughout the entire vaccination period.

Vaccines still work as shown by Our World in Data.

These vaccines’ development did not cut corners. Moderna’s and Pfizer’s compressed timeline reflects unique partnerships between industry, government, and academia, high levels of funding, and decades of previous research on mRNA vaccines, as well as countless individuals working day and night given the nature of the crisis. The development of those remarkable vaccines was, in fact, a multi-year effort. Here is how COVID-19 vaccine approval happens.

Sucralose is a standard ingredient in vaccines. Consuming large amounts of sucralose decreases the activation of T-cells, a crucial aspect of the immune system, in mice.

Coronavirus vaccines may also reduce asymptomatic disease transmission. People who receive two COVID-19 jabs and later contract the Delta variant are less likely to infect their close contacts than are unvaccinated people with Delta. Unfortunately, the vaccine’s beneficial effect on Delta transmission waned to almost negligible levels over time. In people infected 2 weeks after receiving the vaccine developed by the University of Oxford and AstraZeneca, both in the UK, the chance that an unvaccinated close contact would test positive was 57%, but 3 months later, that chance rose to 67%.

The Pfizer and Moderna vaccines work against coronavirus mutation in UK and S. Africa variants, but with less effectiveness against the S. Africa (B.1.351) variant or the Omicron variant. Having had, then recovered from COVID-19 may not provide immmunity to B.1.351 South Africa variant. Several recent studies have reported that post-infection immunity is long-acting, durable, and protective. Now the CDC says that vaccine boosters are effective against the Delta and Omicron COVID-19 variants.


Vaccination not only prevents serious illness and death. Evidence from Delta [variant outbreaks] says the vaccine helps prevent long COVID. This large study suggests weak protection from Long COVID from vaccination. Patients with mild COVID-19 are at risk for a small number of health outcomes, most of which are resolved within a year from diagnosis.

Metformin, vaccination, and paxlovid might help prevent long COVID.

Israel has been distributing boosters to its citizens since mid-July, and the evidence shows they are making a big difference in reducing breakthrough disease. At a meeting of the White House Covid response team on Thursday, Anthony Fauci highlighted a new study from Israel finding that a Pfizer booster shot reduced the risk of both infection and severe illness for people over age 60 by more than 10-fold. Breakthrough infections are growing concern.

Booster shots were amazingly effective in Israel: At least 12 days after the booster dose, the rate of confirmed infection was lower in the booster group than in the nonbooster group by a factor of 11.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.4 to 12.3); the rate of severe illness was lower by a factor of 19.5 (95% CI, 12.9 to 29.5).

Though booster jabs help prevent breakthrough infection, all is not lost if much time has passed since the booster, especially if a breakthrough infection happened. This is because COVID-19 vaccination followed months later by a breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection offers greater protection against the Omicron variant than do closely spaced vaccination and infection. When a person becomes infected months after vaccination, the antibodies that respond come from a new and improved batch made by long-lived cells that carry a memory of the pathogen. When the body encounters the pathogen again, these memory B cells are called back to duty and have a chance to refine the antibodies, providing better protection against subsequent infections. But he ability of some emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants to blunt the protective effects of antibodies means that additional immunizations may be needed to restore levels, especially if one has not experienced a breakthrough infection.

Get your vaccination/booster shot in the morning.

A major benefit of vaccination is that vaccination before or after SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to what is often called super-immunity if one does get infected with COVID-19.

Vaccines have fewer side effects than virtually any other drug you wouldn’t even think twice about taking. Whether you get a vaccine or an infection, you are getting genes injected into you.

The Pfizer vaccine is effective in children aged 12 to 15. In an elderly, diverse, high-comorbidity population, COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness against infection was substantially lower than younger people, but vaccine effectiveness against death was high.

It is unlikely that the rate of adverse effects for these novel vaccines is going to be anywhere near as high as the rate of adverse effects from infection with the virus. About allergic reactions: Dr. Peter Marks said that a chemical called polyethylene glycol (PEG) that (in the form of nanoparticles) is an ingredient in the Pfizer vaccine – as well as the Moderna vaccine “could be the culprit” causing the reactions. Long term complications of vaccines show up in a time span of a few months (8 weeks) rather than a few years. Even more rare (the estimate is one in a million) is an increased risk of developing autoimmune conditions that affect the nervous system, such as Guillain-Barre Syndrome.

There is no evidence that Pfizer’s COVID-19 vaccine causes Alzheimer’s disease.

Side effects appear to be more commonly reported in women than men. A study by CDC researchers shows that 78.7%Trusted Source of adverse event reports submitted during the first month of U.S. vaccination involved women. Reproductive hormones, such as estrogen and testosterone, may play a role in this sex discrepancy. A study Trusted Source in mice suggests that estrogen causes the body to generate more antibodies, leading to a higher immune response.

Most symptoms reported following covid-19 vaccines are likely caused by a nocebo effect rather than an immune response.

The experience in Norway again shows no deaths or brain damage from COVID-19 vaccines.

There is a decrease in vaccine effectiveness after month 4 after full vaccination” in US Veterans, age 65+. A US policy to change to boost at 4-5 months instead of 6 months would be wise in this age group.

Being vaccinated is not a license to act as if there is no pandemic.

Post-vaccination infections resulting in hospitalization or death typically happen in people who are over 65 and who suffer co-morbidities such as being immunocompromized, chronic pulmonary or lung disease, neurologic disease, kidney disease, liver disease, and cardiovascular or heart disease.

Videos of people experiencing severe neurological symptoms, including convulsions and difficulty walking, purportedly after receiving a COVID-19 vaccine, have surfaced on Facebook, YouTube and other social media channels. The millions of people watching these videos might conclude that the vaccine is either quite dangerous to produce such symptoms or that the people in the videos are faking their symptoms. Both conclusions are incorrect, according to neurologist and psychiatrist David Perez, MD, MMSc, director of the Functional Neurological Disorders Unit at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH).

Dr. Gregory Michael, 56, an OB-GYN at Mount Sinai Medical Center in Miami Beach, died after suffering a hemorrhagic stroke apparently resulting from a lack of platelets. The investigation into his death is continuing. At this point, there isno indication that the COVID-19 vaccination caused his low platelet count and his resulting death.

The Pfizer/BioNTech Covid-19 jab has no link to reported post-vaccination deaths and no new side effects, the EU’s medicines regulator has said based on the first data from the vaccine’s roll-out.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said at present it looks like anaphylaxis cases are occurring at a rate of about5.5 per 1 million vaccine doses given, though the agency cautioned that figure may change as the vaccination effort continues.

One of the challenges with having a discussion on vaccine risks vs. benefits is that often, people focus solely on adverse effects from the vaccine and forget to remember the adverse effects from the lack of vaccination. The risk of long-covid and post-infectious viral syndrome is vanquished with the vaccine versus acquiring immunity through being sick. Asymptomatic infections may also be prevented.

Vaccination of persons with known current SARS-CoV-2 infection should be deferred until the person has recovered from the acute illness (if the person had symptoms) and criteria have been met for them to discontinue isolation.

People with autoimmune disorders were included in the trials, and no increased flares were observed; there is also no potential for their increasing autoimmune disorders, long-term. (If anything, the risk of catching SARS-CoV-2, which causes massive interferon release, should be more concerning to those at risk of autoimmune disease.)

Imagine that a vaccine offers 90% protection: “If before the vaccine you met at most one person, and now with vaccines you meet ten people, you’re back to square one.” Herd immunity may be impossible.

Prior exposure to SARS-CoV-2 does not guarantee a high level of antibodies, nor does it guarantee a robust antibody response to the first vaccine dose. Blood samples from participants collected about three weeks after their second vaccine dose, the average level of inhibition was 98%, indicating a very high level of neutralizing antibodies. Prior exposure to SARS-CoV-2 does not guarantee a high level of antibodies, nor does it guarantee a robust antibody response to the first vaccine dose. COVID-19 mRNA vaccines are around five times more effective at preventing hospitalization than a previous infection.

Before Delta became the predominant variant in June, case rates were higher among persons who survived a previous infection than persons who were vaccinated alone. By early October (when Omicron started to predominate), persons who survived a previous infection had lower case rates than persons who were vaccinated alone. This was also shown be data from the Cleveland Clinic. Greater protection due to prior infection was also the case during the Delta wave of COVID-19 cases.

The immediate effects of the second COVID-19 vaccine jab may make some people feel unpleasant symptoms. This is not an indication of vaccine effectiveness.

Being vaccinated to stop the spread of COVID-19 will probably also reduce viral transmission. Trump’s science advisor says that getting the COVID jab is a social responsibility. Here is a great article on breakthrough infections.

Vaccines also benefit those who have been previously infected with COVID-19.

Taking over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen and ibuprofen before receiving a vaccine may reduce its ability to work and blunt your immune response to the vaccine. After the vaccination, don’t hesitate to take an over-the-counter medication if you have symptoms that make you uncomfortable.

Getting quality sleep after vaccination will allow the vaccine to instill immunity effectively.

Taking antibiotics may interfere with the action of vaccines.

Older individuals may increase vaccine effectiveness by consuming a plant-based diet or temporarily supplementing with vitamin E for a period of weeks before and after they receive the vaccine. Exercise will boost vaccine effectiveness.

Here is the awesome science of how the vaccine was first made. How to talk to a person with vaccine hesitancy.

Social psychologists know that, on the one hand, people are motivated to maintain consistency across their beliefs. Because people want their web of beliefs to be coherent, they tend to give a lot of weight to beliefs that are consistent with their overall worldview and to discount those that are contradictory. As a result, people will continue to hold on to a set of beliefs even in the face of mounting evidence that they should revise what they think.

The tendency toward consistency that people display – particularly in situations where they have expressed a strong preference – is most harmful in environments that change. The COVID-19 pandemic is just such a case.

This is why we need the vaccine. This is why COVID-19 vaccine manufacturers are shielded from vaccine injury liability.

Emerging data, including evidence of breakthrough infections, suggest that vaccine effectiveness might be reduced significantly against emerging variants of concern, and hence secondary vaccines will need to be developed to maintain population-level protective immunity.

Part of the problem is that coronaviruses replicate in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. “We have good circulation in our lungs and body, but not on the surfaces of our nostrils,” Dr. Slifka said. “We can block severe disease because there are antibodies in the lower respiratory tract.” But the risk of low-level infections in the upper respiratory tract can persist.

Dr. Kayee Tong, M.D. from University of Texas Medical Branch (Graduated 2020):

I’ll speak to my own experience. I got mine as soon as it was available to healthcare professionals. My teaching hospital has one of the only two University based BSL-4 labs in the nation. I’ve done infectious disease (ID) research with a NIH/NIAID grant before. Fair to say, I know a thing or two about vaccines and the potential long-term effects of getting COVID-19. I personally know many ID specialty MD/PhDs who can think for themselves. Not one refused the vaccine.

It was, arguably, vaccine nationalism that brought us the Delta variant the we a now suffering from. Massive numbers of new COVID–19 infections, not vaccines, are the main driver of new coronavirus variants. The vaccine hesitant endanger everyone else.

People who received the second dose 5 or 6 months ago do not have any neutralization ability against the omicron. While they do have some against the delta (strain). The good news is that with the booster dose it increases about a hundredfold. There is a significant protection via the booster (third) dose.

Most of the anti-vaccine content circulating online can be tied to 12 people, dubbed the “Disinformation Dozen”. The list includes Robert F. Kennedy Jr., Joseph Mercola, Ty and Charlene Bollinger, Sherri Tenpenny, Rizza Islam, Rashid Buttar, Erin Elizabeth, Sayer Ji, Kelly Brogan, Christiane Northrup, Ben Tapper and Kevin Jenkins. Now Joe Rogan is, officially, a covidiot. There are also problems with Dr. John Campbell. Russel Brand is an anti-vax conspiratorial lunatic.

Eight of history’s most misguided anti-vaxxers.

Since its inception in 1988, anti-vaccine groups (who have no medical expertise) have cherry-picked VAERS data and twisted it out of context to show the supposed dangers of vaccines. Now, with several COVID-19 vaccines being administered, and vaccine hesitancy and misinformation on the rise worldwide, VAERS is being used yet again by those same groups—as well as a crop of new bad actors—as a vehicle for claims that various vaccines cause serious side effects like Bell’s palsy, hospitalizations, or death. (A CDC review of safety data to date found this week that Bell’s palsy is no more common in COVID-vaccinated populations than unvaccinated; nor is the rate of death, or other severe health complications.) VAERS is a passive reporting surveillance system, and the people who submit to it can include doctors and healthcare providers, but also anyone who receives a vaccine, their family members, or even lawyers. (This is different from the CDC’s Vaccine Safety Datalink, which is limited to health care professionals, and requires more documentation for submissions.)

Because COVID-19 has been starkly politicized since the beginning of the pandemic, public health measures have become directly associated with the political left. Rejection of such measures has consequently become a signal of political and cultural identity.


Vacuum cleaner dust may be hazardous for those who are allergic and immune compromised.

Cooler temperatures can enable replication of the common cold virus, at least in part, by diminishing antiviral immune responses.

Stay hydrated (drink sufficient water) vs. the common cold. Staying hydrated can boost your immune health too. Water helps your body produce lymph, which carries white blood cells and other immune system cells. Try to avoid overdoing beverages that can make you dehydrated, like coffee. Or try eating more hydrating foods, such as cucumbers, celery or watermelon.

Environment trumps genes for immune health.

Those on the autistic spectrum need to try harder to stay healthy.

Treating COVID-19

The only way to be certain that symptoms are/are not COVID-19: get tested.

If one tests positive for COVID-19 and is starting to feel sick, a pulse oximeter (inexpensive) is useful in monitoring the state of one’s illness. An oxygen saturation level between 95 and 97% is considered normal by the American Lung Association; anything below that would be a  reason to call a doctor, and anything under 90% would be a reason to go to the emergency room. Measurement using a  a pulse oximeter is useful in catching this problem of silent hypoxia (they are not very expensive). Consider contacting a hospital and requesting treatment with monoclonal antibodies. One may have to be persistant to arrange for such treatment.  Because COVID-19 damages via oxidative stress, melatonin, taken one hour before bed, may help. Mild fever enhances the interferon response so it should not be interfered with. Do not take ibuprofen or ketoprofen.

In COVID-19 patients, oral zinc can decrease 30-day death, ICU admission rate and can shorten symptom duration.

Attenuated production of betahydroxybutyrate (BHB) is correlated with impaired CD4+ T cell function in patients with severe COVID-19, and BHB supplementation through a ketogenic diet or oral administration of ketone esters enhances survival of CD4+ T cells and their capacity to produce interferon-γ (IFNγ), thereby boosting the antiviral immune response6BHB is naturally produced during fasting.

In a preclinical model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, oral administration of ketone esters via drinking water or a ketogenic diet improved antiviral CD4+ T cell functional fitness and viral clearance, resulting in reduced lung injury, faster recovery from weight loss and improved overall survival6.

Several active ingredients within licorice may interact with different COVID-19 targets, including inflammation. Some of the key complexes identified in this study include CXCL8/Phaseol, IL2RA/Glycyrol, STAT3/Glycyrol, and MMP1/Glyaspern F. Glycyrrhizin could reduce the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the host cell, as with other viruses, by inhibiting the activity of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) host cell receptor. In addition, this compound also reduces the activity of the inflammatory alarmin high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1).

Some researchers believe quercetin might inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 virus so they recommend studying its use to reduce the risk of COVID-19 [202,204,205,207,211] Quercetin might also reduce inflammation and organ damage, such as acute kidney injury, that occurs in some critically ill patients with COVID-19 [203,206,212]. Others recommend studying the combination of quercetin with vitamin C because these substances might have antioxidant synergy [208].

This study of 60 participants (25 women, 35 men; age range 21 to 85 years old), who had been admitted to the hospital based on a diagnosis of COVID-19 showed these participants had much less glutathione and more oxidative stress than the corresponding age groups without COVID-19. Because GlyNAC (combination of glycine and N-acetylcysteine) supplementation has been shown in clinical trials to rapidly improve GSH deficiency, OxS and oxidant damage, GlyNAC supplementation has implications for combating these defects in COVID-19 infected patients and warrants urgent investigation. Glutathione can also be increased by sulforaphane (from broccoli or, especially, broccoli sprouts). A combination of sprouts may provide even more sulforaphane:

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Sulforaphane exhibits antiviral activity against pandemic SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal HCoV-OC43 coronaviruses in vitro and in mice.

COVID‐19 is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic abnormalities, including the deficiencies in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and glutathione metabolism. A mixture of combined metabolic activators (CMAs) consisting of glutathione and NAD+ precursors can restore metabolic function and thus aid the recovery of COVID‐19 patients. CMAs include l‐serine, N‐acetyl‐l‐cysteine, nicotinamide riboside, and l‐carnitine tartrate, a salt form of l‐carnitine, and glutathione. Nicotinamide mononucleide would probably worked as well as (or better than) nicotinamide riboside. Dr. Brad Stanfield, in this video, asserts that naicin hastens recovery from COVID-19.

 A study from the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University has found that irrigating your nose twice a day with a saline solution after testing positive for Covid-19 can decrease your chances of hospitalization and death in higher-risk patients. An Italian study of 140 participants found that saline nasal lavages resulted in significantly decrease nasal symptoms in newly diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 patients.

Spraying the nasal passages and throat with vinegar may slow down the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

Near-infrared light exposure can make a significant difference for those infected with COVID-19. So: get some sun exposure.

By Otto

I am a health enthusiast, engineer, and maker.