Insulin resistance amplifies the risk of many dreadful diseases.
Here are the first signs of type 2 diabetes.
The rate of visceral fat accumulation is different according to the individual’s gender and ethnic background; being more prominent in white men, African American women and Asian Indian and Japanese men and women.
Increased visceral fat (VF) is a strong risk factor for cardio-metabolic diseases. Observational studies have found that intakes of fruit,1 dairy1 and nutrients,2 and whole grains,3 and fiber2, 4 are protective, whereas intakes of fried foods and fat,1, 5 alcohol, red and processed meat1 and related nutrients,2 sugar-sweetened beverages1, 5, 6, 7 and refined grains1, 3 and high glycemic index foods8, 9 are associated with higher levels of VF mass (VFM) or waist circumference. Soluble gel-forming fibers, such as psyllium and fibers found in oat products, can lower serumLDLcholesterol concentrations and normalize blood glucose and insulin responses. Large prospective cohort studies consistently report inverse associations between consumption of diets rich in fiber and risks of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Before diabetes develops, that is, in the early stages of insulin resistance, blood sugar is normal. Therefore, to recognize insulin resistance, not only blood glucose should be considered (because this can be normal), but also the relationship between blood sugar and insulin levels in the body (with insulin resistance): hyperinsulinemia occurs).
Eating a lot of high-fat, high-calorie foods can lead to weight gain and increased visceral fat, especially if you tend to gain weight in your stomach. The types of fat you eat may be important as well as the amount. For example, eating trans fats may be associated with increases in visceral fat, according to a review article published in Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids in 2008. Limit processed foods, store-bought baked goods and fried foods to avoid trans fats.
Try replacing foods containing saturated and trans fats with those containing polyunsaturated fats, the type in vegetable oils and fish. Have salmon for dinner instead of prime rib, use vegetable oil for cooking instead of butter, and snack on walnuts or sunflower seeds instead of packaged snack foods like chips and crackers.
Reduce visceral fat by increasing fiber intake (easy on a plant-rich diet), manage stress, get quality sleep, reduce sugar intake, and exercise. Physical inactivity appears to be an independent and strong risk factor for accumulation of visceral fat, which again is a source of systemic inflammation. Exercise on an empty stomach.
Harvard Health: Metformin may help prevent type 2 diabetes in those who struggle with high blood sugar.
A mild degree of insulin resistance appears to be present in some healthy postmenopausal women. Estrogen appears to improve insulin sensitivity, while added progestin may attenuate this beneficial effect.
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) have been reported to increase not only insulin secretion of the pancreas but also insulin sensitivity of the liver, adipose tissue, and muscle.
Dr. Mike Hansen, in this (referenced) video says: Less than 30 grams of carbs per day combined with intermittent fasting and exercise will result in weight loss. This will activate beta hydroxybutyrate with awesome health results. Here is another video by Dr. Hansen touting intermittent fasting for avoiding diabetes and sending diabetes into remission.
Persistently raised insulin levels can lead to insulin resistance, where the pancreas needs to create more insulin to have the same effect on blood glucose. Eventually the resistance can get so bad that insulin can no longer maintain a healthy level, and we end up with elevated blood glucose levels. Periods of intermittent fasting can dramatically improve our insulin levels. Our insulin sensitivity can start to be restored.
Placing time restrictions on feeding has been shown to have broad systemic effects and trigger similar biological pathways as caloric restriction.(5) For example, IF regimens have been shown to improve cardio-metabolic risk factors (such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and inflammation cytokines),(13) decrease visceral fat mass,(6) and produce similar levels of weight loss as CR regimens.(8)
This study of 72 patients with type 2 diabetes in China showed that 36 patients in the intermittent fasting group lost roughly 13 pounds and maintained this weight loss for 1 year, and close to half achieved diabetes remission. This compared with barely any weight loss for the 36 patients in the control group, of whom just 3% achieved remission.
Aging is associated with a gradual loss of fat-free mass and a gain of excess body fat. We refer to this condition involving high fat mass with low fat-free mass as sarcopenic obesity . Time-restricted eating (TRE) reduces this ratio; thus, TRE may be a good therapeutic strategy to treat obesity in elderly patients. TRE reduced intramuscular fat deposits and suppressed obesity-induced myofibril and mitochondrial defects in Drosophila . TRE has been shown to reduce whole-body fat accumulation, improve glucose homeostasis, restore cholesterol homeostasis, and improve muscle function in mouse studies [58,59].
Time-restricted eating produces mild weight loss (1%-4% from baseline) and energy restriction, when food consumption is restricted to 4-10 h/day. TRE also reduces fasting insulin and improves insulin sensitivity in individuals with prediabetes and those with obesity. Moreover, TRE improves glucose tolerance and decreases serum glucose excursions.
Lifestyle interventions resulting in weight loss and loss of visceral fat can have a significant impact on cardiometabolic risk. Bariatric surgery has also been shown to improve insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and other comorbidities of obesity. Several medical therapies for type 2 diabetes or obesity also show promise for an impact on visceral adiposity-related comorbidities. Complications of that surgery are common.
Caloric restriction improves glycaemic control without reducing plasma branched-chain amino acids or keto-acids in obese men.
Monkeys on CR exhibit lower body temperature, fasting blood glucose and insulin, and serum lipids. In addition, insulin sensitivity is increased in monkeys on CR.
Akkermansia muciniphila is associated with a healthier metabolic status and better clinical outcomes after CR in overweight/obese adults. Consume polyphenols to increase the abundance of A muciniphila.
CR may work via an adipokine called APOM.
A moderate protocol of CR improves insulin vascular sensitivity and prevents the aging induced overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in perivascular adipose tissue .
Six healthy men consumed 6,000 calories without exercising. In as little as two days after starting the diet, all of the men reached a metabolic state known as insulin resistance—often a precursor to diabetes.Studies conducted in overweight humans indicate short-term CR (6-months) can significantly improve several cardiovascular risk factors, insulin-sensitivity, and mitochondrial function.(3)
Intermittent fasting (IF) may be preferable to calorie restriction
One key mechanism responsible for many of these beneficial effects of IF appears to be “flipping” of the metabolic switch. But what is this metabolic switch and how is it flipped? Here, we define the metabolic switch as the body’s preferential shift from utilization of glucose from glycogenolysis to fatty acids and fatty acid-derived ketones. The reason we use the word ‘preferential’ is because there is now a growing body of research to indicate ketones are the preferred fuel for both the brain and body during periods of fasting and extended exercise.(18, 19) Of relevance to weight management, this switch represents a shift from lipid synthesis and fat storage to mobilization of fat in the form of free fatty acids (FFAs) and fatty-acid derived ketones. For this reason, many experts have suggested IF regimens may have potential in the treatment of obesity and related metabolic conditions, including metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.(20)
Initial scientific studies conducted in 1914 utilized fasting for the treatment of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.(36),(37) Subsequently, numerous studies suggested fasting as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. Genuth(38) described a case report of a severely obese woman who had resolution of her diabetes following four weeks of fasting; significantly, her glucose tolerance remained normal for over a year after she regained the lost weight. Jackson et al.(39) found an improvement in glucose tolerance following 17–99 days of fasting, and the improvement in glucose and insulin metabolism was not related to the weight lost during the fast or the weight regained following the fast. Several additional studies found an improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in people with diabetes immediately following a fast.(40) (41–46)
Bisphenol A (BPA), phthalates and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (forever chemicals) can cause obesity even without a caloric surplus. Eggs, certain kinds of meat, especially liver and other organ meats and dairy products have also been found to have higher levels of longer chain PFAS (per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances) in particular. EU scientists have also warned that fruit can contain elevated levels of PFAS. BPA was positively associated with generalized obesity, abdominal obesity, and insulin resistance in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults. A team of Spanish and Mexican researchers reports discovering that the endocrine-disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA) causes insulin resistance in mice similar to that seen just before the onset of type 2 diabetes.
Defects in autophagy lead to the etiology of many diseases, including diabetes mellitus (DM), cancer, neurodegeneration, infection disease and aging. Autophagy plays an important role in pancreatic beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance.
Autophagy defends against metabolic stress. From this authoritative book, also pointed out in this helpful video: Protein anabolism in skeletal muscle requires the activation of insulin sinaling cascade such as insulin/Akt/mTor signalling pathways. Conversely, protein degradation in skeletal muscle mainly requires the mechansims of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and autophagy-lysosomal protein degradation. Hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and T2DM can decrease skeletal muscle mass and induce skeletal muscle atrophy and dysfunction. Although it has already been demonstrated that these adverse effects can be alleviated by exercise-mediated autophagy, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown yet. Autophagy is required to maintain skeletal muscle mass and protect against muscle atrophy. Energy surplus such as a high-fat and/or high-sucrose diet can lead to dysfunctional muscle and decreased grip strength.
The pancreatic beta cells are the major glucose regulatory cells in pancreatic islets which regulate the insulin secretions. Impairment of the autophagic pathway in pancreatic β cells also results in the development of type 2 diabetes.
Autophagy could have a role in exercise by reducing insulin resistance – researchers are now aiming to determine the level of exercise needed to stimulate autophagy in humans.
Avoid red and processed meat
Several studies,, have suggested that eating too much red and processed meats can increase your risk of Type 2 diabetes. Red meat includes pork, beef, mutton and veal. Processed meats are meats that are preserved by curing, salting, smoking, drying or canning. Hot dogs, bacon, ham, sausages, corned beef and canned luncheon meat are examples of processed meats.
Animal-based low-carb diets were associated with an increased risk of developing Type 2 diabetes, while plant-based low-carb diets were associated with a lower risk of developing diabetes. This low-carb diet did not distinguish between animal and plant-based, yet achieved diabetes reversal in some participants.
In one study, researchers observed a group of middle-aged men and women for four years. They found that those who increased their red meat intake by half a serving a day had a 48 percent higher risk of developing Type 2 diabetes than if they had not changed their diet. Those who reduced their red meat intake, on the other hand, had a lower risk.
Processed red meat is especially bad for your health. It is believed that the preservatives, additives and chemicals (e.g. nitrites, nitrates) that are added to the meat during manufacturing can harm your pancreas (organ that produces insulin) and increase insulin resistance.
As red meat is a source of saturated fat, cholesterol, animal protein and haem-iron (iron containing substance), scientists suspect these substances in red meat may also contribute to the increased diabetes risk. How and why this is so is still unclear. Some think that iron overload in the body can promote insulin resistance and raise blood glucose levels.
Red meat and refined carbs are linked to 70% of type 2 diabetes cases globally.
From Harvard Health: Higher protein, lower carbohydrate diets improve blood lipid profiles and other metabolic markers, so they may help prevent heart disease and diabetes. (4,12,13) But some high-protein foods are healthier than others: High intakes of red meat and processed meat are associated with an increased risk of heart disease, diabetes, and colon cancer. Replacing red and processed meat with nuts, beans, fish, or poultry seems to lower the risk of heart disease and diabetes. (14,16).
A low-carb diet can reduce the chance of type 2 diabetes only if it is plant-based. Dr. Roger Seheult shows, conclusively, in this video, that low-carb diets that are animal-based significantly increase the chance of type 2 diabetes. But low-carb diets that are plant-based decrease the chance of type 2 diabetes. Low-carb plant-based + no refined carbohydrates diets are even better still for avoiding diabetes.
Advanced glycation end products (AGES)
Oral advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) promote insulin resistance and diabetes by depleting the antioxidant defenses AGE receptor-1 and sirtuin 1.
When you fry, grill or bake foods—also called dry-heat cooking—foods produce substances called advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Higher levels of AGEs have been linked to insulin resistance, stress on the body’s cells and inflammation, according to the study authors. These are troublemakers in terms of diabetes risk.
The highest AGE levels were observed in animal products high in protein and fat, such as meats and cheeses. Furthermore, high AGE levels were observed in (industrially) preprocessed foods from animal products like frankfurters, bacon, and powdered egg whites, compared with the unprocessed forms.
Mice with sustained exposure to the compound, methyl-glyoxal (MG), developed significant abdominal weight gain, early insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. MG is a type of advanced glycation endproduct (AGEs), which is produced when food is cooked with dry heat. AGEs have been found to lower the body’s protective mechanisms that control inflammation.
Increased recruitment of the AMPK signaling system, either by exercise or pharmaceutical activators, may be effective in correcting insulin resistance in patients with forms of impaired glucose tolerance and Type 2 diabetes resulting from defects in the insulin signaling cascade.
Beans are anti-diabetic
Indigestible colonic substrates from brown beans may provide a preventive tool in relation to obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Legume intake is inversely associated with the risk of having metabolic syndrome (MetS) and some of its components. Frequent consumption of pulses (beans) in an ad libitum diet reduced risk factors of the MetS and these effects were equivalent, and in some instances stronger, than counselling for dietary energy reduction. Substituting legumes for foods that are high in saturated fats or refined carbohydrates is likely to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Legumes not only have varying degrees of anti-diabetic potential but are also beneficial in decreasing the risk factors for cardiovascular and renal disease. Beans work via an exceptionally low glycemic effect and also soluble fiber. Butyrate improves insulin sensitivity and increases energy expenditure in mice. So eat a high-soluble fiber diet. Beans are high in soluble fiber which helps to reduce visceral fat.
A whole-food, unprocessed, plant-based diet
Large observational studies, which have shown that plant-based diets (PBDs) were associated with lower prevalence of type 2 diabetes. As well, intervention studies have shown that PBDs were just as effective, if not more effective, than other diabetes diets in improving body weight, cardiovascular risk factors, insulin sensitivity, glycated hemoglobin levels, oxidative stress markers and renovascular markers.
This randomized, controlled, 74-wk clinical trial showed that a low-fat vegan diet appeared to improve glycemia and plasma lipids more than did conventional diabetes diet recommendations.
Epidemiological studies have found a lower prevalence of type 2 diabetes among vegetarians compared to nonvegetarians. This reduced risk is likely a function of improved weight status, higher intake of dietary fiber, and the absence of animal protein and heme iron in the diet. Interventional studies have shown that vegetarian diets, especially a vegan diet, are effective tools in glycemic control and that these diets control plasma glucose to a greater level than do control diets, including diets traditionally recommended for patients with diabetes.
Diet and lifestyle, particularly plant-based diets, are effective tools for type 2 diabetes prevention and management. Multiple potential mechanisms underlie the benefits of a plant-based diet in ameliorating insulin resistance, including promotion of a healthy body weight, increases in fiber and phytonutrients, food-microbiome interactions, and decreases in saturated fat, advanced glycation endproducts, nitrosamines, and heme iron.
This systematic review and meta-analysis of six studies concluded that consumption of vegetarian diets is associated with improved glycemic control in type 2 diabetes.
This 12-week randomized clinical trial with 46 participants concluded that dietary guidelines for patients with T2D should include a vegan diet for the better management and treatment.
This longitudinal study was conducted on 1141 participants showed that higher consumption of phytochemical-rich foods may have protective effects against development of insulin resistance.
62 overweight adults were randomly assigned to a Mediterranean or vegan diet for a 16-week period. This study showed that a low-fat vegan diet improved body weight, lipid concentrations, and insulin sensitivity, both from baseline and compared with a Mediterranean diet.
Quinoa is an excellent anti-diabetic food.
Refined grains and high glycemic foods increase diabetes risk
From Harvard Health:
Milled, refined grains and the foods made with them-white rice, white bread, white pasta, processed breakfast cereals, and the like-are rich in rapidly digested carbohydrate. So are potatoes and sugary drinks. The scientific term for this is that they have a high glycemic index and glycemic load. Such foods cause fast and furious increases in blood sugar and insulin that, in the short term, can cause hunger to spike and can lead to overeating-and over the long term, increase the risk of weight gain, diabetes, and heart disease. (17–19).
Eating high levels of flavonoids including anthocyanins and other compounds (found in berries, tea, and chocolate) could offer protection from type 2 diabetes. A study of almost 2,000 people also found that these food groups lower inflammation which, when chronic, is associated with diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.
Daily dietary supplementation with bioactives (such as anthocyanins) from whole blueberries improved insulin sensitivity in obese, nondiabetic, and insulin-resistant participants. This was also shown in mice and rats.
Sixty-seven percent of people who drank a blueberry smoothie twice a day for six weeks experienced a 10% or greater improvement in their insulin sensitivity, compared with 41% of people in the placebo smoothie group.
This systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies involving 200,894 participants showed that dietary anthocyanin consumption was associated with a 15% reduction of T2DM risk.
Not all anthocyanins are the same: acylated anthocyanins—which are found in vegetables such as red cabbage and purple sweet potato—may be superior to nonacylated anthocyanins—found in blackberries and blackcurrants—in terms of anti-diabetic properties.
This rat study suggests that ellagic acid derived from nuts and fruits such as raspberries and pomegranates may provide a useful dietary supplement to decrease the characteristic changes in metabolism and in cardiac and hepatic structure and function induced by a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation.
Added fructose is bad
Studies have confirmed that there is a link between sugary drinks and obesity, as well as cautioning that as few as two sugary drinks per week may raise the risk of type 2 diabetes considerably. That is because sugar has a strong tendency to produce visceral fat. This study of 91249 women showed that simple carbs (sugar is a simple carb) are bad.
Fructose-induced hyperuricemia results in endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance, and might be a novel causal mechanism of the metabolic syndrome. Uric acid may be a cause of metabolic syndrome, possibly due to its ability to inhibit endothelial function. Fructose may have a major role in the epidemic of metabolic syndrome and obesity due to its ability to raise uric acid.
Dr. Roger Seheult shows, in this (referenced) video how fruit juice causes insulin resistance.
A study of mice found that dietary sugar alters the gut microbiome, setting off a chain of events that leads to metabolic disease, pre-diabetes, and weight gain. Sugar (sucrose) is 1/2 fructose which is why it is so dangerous.
Excess fructose in the liver activates a molecular factor known as carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein, or ChREBP. Fructose initiates a process that causes the liver to keep making glucose and raising blood glucose levels, even as insulin tries to keep glucose production in check. No matter how much insulin the pancreas makes, it can’t override the processes started by this protein, ChREBP, to stimulate glucose production. This can ultimately cause blood sugar and insulin levels to increase, which over time can lead to insulin resistance elsewhere in the body.
Fructose is not the driver of clinical obesity, but fructose sets the stage, it creates the metabolic unhealth, where now, when you eat fat, especially saturated fat, that drive up the weight gain, because you set the system to a low energy (ATP) level. Diabetes is a high energy level, but it’s in fat, so you can’t release it to restore the ATP level.
Diabetes, especially type 2, is more common in males rather than females. However, females often have more serious complications and a greater risk of death.
Image Credit: Eviart / Shutterstock
There is no need for added fructose or any added sugars in the diet; reducing intake to 5% of total calories (the level now suggested by the World Health Organization) has been shown to improve glucose tolerance in humans and decrease the prevalence of diabetes and the metabolic derangements that often precede and accompany it. Reducing the intake of added sugars could translate to reduced diabetes-related morbidity and premature mortality for populations.
Countries using high-fructose corn syrup had rates of diabetes that were about 20% higher than countries that didn’t mix the sweetener into foods. Those differences remained even after researchers took into account data for differences in body size, population, and wealth.
Consuming sweet fruits to excess with cause weight gain:
It is best to avoid high-fructose fruits such as mangoes, figs, and dates. Apples, plums and pears tend to to fairly high in fructose. Dried fruit is akin to candy.
Drinking alcohol raises one’s level of fructose in the blood.
Glycine intake may help avoid diabetes. Acute glycine supplementation (5 g/day) was reported to improve insulin response and glucose tolerance [122,123]. The health benefits of glycine supplementation were attributed to an improvement in glutathione synthesis and antioxidant protection.
This study of 953 community-dwelling participants (mean age 62 years, 59% women) showed that chocolate intake was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes. That may be because cocoa polyphenols tend to reduce visceral fat.
The less active you are, the greater your risk. Physical activity helps you control your weight, uses up glucose as energy and makes your cells more sensitive to insulin. Exercise is an effective strategy in the prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases.
A ‘couch potato’ lifestyle, and chronic stress impair brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling, and this may contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Here are other ways to increase BDNF.
Daily exercise lowers blood pressure and reduces visceral adipose tissue areas in overweight Japanese men.
Exercise works via fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) which increases glucose uptake.
When the brain loses its sensitivity to insulin, increased hunger and disrupted metabolism often follow. Reduced brain insulin sensitivity can lead to weight gain, increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes. A new study finds that an 8-week exercise program consisting of 1 hour of exercise 3 times a week can restore brain insulin sensitivity in individuals with obesity.
This mouse study found that brown adipose tissue (brown fat) significantly decreased body weight and improved glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Brown adipose tissue may function as an anti-obesity and anti-diabetic tissue in humans, increasing insulin sensitivity. Brown fat is created by being cold. Exercise also makes brown fat). Brown fat may work via removing branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) from the blood. Brown fat tends to decrease with age.
Among children who tested positive for gene variants known to be associated with type 2 diabetes, those who consumed higher amounts of calcium had a significantly lower body mass index and percent body fat than those with lower calcium intake. Body mass index and percent body fat are strong indicators of a child’s risk for developing diabetes later in life.
This study of 83,779 women suggest a potential beneficial role for both vitamin D and calcium intake in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes.
This study of 229 of pubertal obese children from Mexico City showed that magnesium-deficient diets are determinants of inflammation, while high intake of refined carbohydrates is a risk factor for insulin resistance, independently of central adiposity.
Dr. Robert Lusting shows here that eliminating sugar from the diet of children suffering from metabolic syndrome cured them.
A robust circadian oscillation
From the Mayo Clinic: Multiple strands of evidence support the causative relationship between circadian disruption and impaired glucose homeostasis. First, individuals engaged in work conditions characterized by circadian disruption, such as rotational shift and night work, exhibit higher prevalence of diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance and metabolic syndrome.
Environmental factors such as caloric intake and physical inactivity have long been appreciated to augment susceptibility to T2DM. More recently, however, circadian rhythm disruption has been gaining greater appreciation as an emerging environmental risk factor for T2DM.
Eating only early in the day may increase insulin sensitivity. This study of 1488 participants showed that increasing carbohydrate intake in the morning while simultaneously reducing fat intake could be protective against long-term development of the metabolic syndrome and its components. A good breakfast is important.
Circadian disruption can result in decreased muscle mass, protein quality, and increased visceral fat levels and insulin resistance.
The expression of several genes related to circadian rhythm, inflammation, and oxidative stress correlated significantly with visceral fat accumulation.
Emerging evidence from both cell-based and human studies suggests that expression of the circadian clock transcription network within adipose tissue may influence both adipogenesis and the relative distribution of subcutaneous versus visceral depots.
Sleep disturbances can promote myocardial dysfunction2 and promote catabolic effect on skeletal muscle.3 As reported by Covassin et al,1 disordered sleep may alter body composition by promoting increased visceral fat. A strong circadian oscillation will promote good sleep.
Sleeping in a room exposed to outdoor artificial light at night may increase the risk of developing diabetes, according to a study of nearly 100,000 Chinese adults.
WebMD says that prediabetics can recover: lose weight, eat healthy, exercise, quality sleep, and don’t smoke tobacco.
Weight loss is key to diabetic remission, but adequate protein can also help.
Taking a dip in cold water may cut ‘bad’ body fat in men and decrease the risk of disorders such as diabetes.