This cartoon video explains the gut microbiome.
Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome. Increases in the abundance and activity of Bilophila wadsworthia on the animal-based diet support a link between dietary fat, bile acids and the outgrowth of microorganisms capable of triggering inflammatory bowel disease6
Among the lifestyle factors that are associated with the metabolic syndrome, disruption of the circadian system, known as circadian dysrhythmia, is increasingly common. Disruption of the circadian system can alter microbiome communities and can perturb host metabolism, energy homeostasis and inflammatory pathways, which leads to the metabolic syndrome. This blog post may be applicable.
The gut microbiome affects exercise and exercise affects the gut microbiome
Moderate endurance exercise reduces inflammation, improves body composition and leads to positive effects on gut microbial diversity and composition and its metabolic contribution to human health. Rodent studies have highlighted a bidirectional relationship, with exercise impacting the gut microbiota composition while the microbiota may influence performance. The rewarding properties of exercise are influenced by gut-derived interoceptive circuits and provide a microbiome-dependent explanation for interindividual variability in exercise performance. In non-athletes rising physical activity markedly influenced the relative abundance of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA).
Compared with young adults, the gut microbiota of centenarians exhibits higher microbial diversity, xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism, oxidoreductases, and multiple species (the potential probiotics Lactobacillus, Akkermansia, the methanogenic Methanobrevibacter, gut butyrate-producing members Roseburia, and SCFA-producing species uncl Clostridiales, uncl Ruminococcaceae) known to be beneficial to host metabolism.
Clarke et al. (54) found that the gut microbiota of professional rugby players had greater alpha diversity and a higher relative abundance of 40 different bacterial taxa than the gut microbiota of lean sedentary controls. The athletes also had lower abundance of Bacteroides and Lactobacillus species than their lean sedentary counterparts (54). More recently, Bressa et al. (55) compared active women with sedentary controls and observed that women who performed at least 3 h of exercise per week had increased levels of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia hominis, and Akkermansia muciniphila. F. prausnitzii and R. hominis are known butyrate producers (56), whereas A. muciniphila has been associated with a lean body mass index (BMI) and improved metabolic health (57).
Our bodies are designed to be in the fasted state 12-14 hours per day. Fasting does not begin for 5 hours after eating. Gut lining repair takes place in the fasted state. Intermittent fasting vs. irritable bowel syndrome.
A robust, diverse, gut microbiome may help one keep one’s marbles despite aging:
The human microbiome has important roles in maintaining homeostasis, and disruption of microbial colonization of an infant has systemic effects that may influence health later in life, potentially promoting the development of autoimmunity, allergies, metabolic diseases, and even cancer.
This study has discovered that plant protein keeps our gut bacteria happy, helping researchers better understand how to manage good gut health.
In this cross-sectional study, β-diversity, a measure of gut microbial community composition, was statistically significantly associated with all measures of cognitive function. Alterations in the composition of the gut microbiome have been shown to independently cause an increase in risk of dementia, along with other traditional risk factors. The presence of microbiome-associated metabolites and bacterial products in the systemic circulation may increase, especially with the inflammatory process that can lead to dementia.
A healthy gut biome is essential to avoid brain fog.
Studies in two different animals show that proteins made by bacteria harbored in the gut may be an initiating factor in the disease process of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and ALS.
Extrinsic and intrinsic factors including dietary habits can regulate the composition of the microbiota. Microbes release metabolites and microbiota-derived molecules to further trigger host-derived cytokines and inflammation in the central nervous system, which contribute greatly to the pathogenesis of host brain disorders such as pain, depression, anxiety, autism, Alzheimer’s diseases, Parkinson’s disease, and stroke.
Food patterns and dietary habits result in a change of brain physiology which can be explained by food-derived metabolites (Fig. 2). Metabolites derived from food play important roles in the pathogenesis of brain-related diseases. Recent findings showed the food-derived metabolites include not only SCFAs but also phosphatidylcholine, trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), L-carnitine, glutamate, bile acids, lipids, and vitamins. The food derivatives and microbe-fermented small molecular metabolites are released by gut microbiota into the blood which interacts with the host and further contributes to a variety of disorders, including brain diseases.
The excessive intake of saturated fat and refined carbohydrates is typical of western diet, which also has a negative impact on cognitive functioning since high fat and sugar change intestine bacteria colonies and increase intestinal permeability and lower blood brain barrier. This develops a vulnerability to the influx of toxins from circulation to the brain, which results in cognitive dysfunction.
Shown by a cohort of 89 people between 65 and 85 years of age: certain bacterial products of the intestinal microbiota are correlated with the quantity of amyloid plaques in the brain.
High blood levels of lipopolysaccharides and certain short-chain fatty acids (acetate and valerate) were associated with both large amyloid deposits in the brain. Lipopolysaccharides, a protein located on the membrane of bacteria with pro-inflammatory properties, have been found in amyloid plaques and around vessels in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease. Conversely, high levels of another short-chain fatty acid, butyrate, were associated with less amyloid pathology.
Several studies have shown associations between gut microbial measures and neurological outcomes, including cognitive function and dementia. Mechanisms have not been fully established, but there is growing support for a role in microbiota-generated short-chain fatty acids.
Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid, is increased by a diet rich in high-fiber plant-based foods such as wholegrains, vegetables, fruits, nuts/seeds and legumes. Soluble fiber is prebiotic. It prevents all-cause mortality.
The good gut bacteria such as bacteroides are in a battle with bad gut bacteria such as firmicutes. Soluble and insoluble fiber will give the good bacteria nutrients to win the war. Fiber also prevents leaky gut syndrome. Fiber will cause the good bacteria to produce spermidine.
Spices such as turmeric, oregano, cumin, ginger, and cinnamon feature polyphenols that will benefit gut health.
Adding a daily ounce of peanuts or about a teaspoon of herbs and spices to your diet may affect the composition of gut bacteria, an indicator of overall health.