The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented health crisis of global scale. The SARS-CoV-2 virus has been isolated and even photographed. Here is how coronavirus attacks the body. Here is a video summary of how to avoid COVID-19, which may be likely to infect (on average) up to 5 or 6 other people, rather than 2 or 3. COVID-19 is as transmissible as it is because people shed the virus just before they get sick. Roughly 1/3 of SARS-CoV-2 infections are completely asymptomatic, perhaps due, partly, to a previous coronavirus infection. This systematic review and meta-analysis showed that asymptomatic infections occurred in 40.50% among the confirmed population. More that 50% of the transmission happening in the community is from people without symptoms—those who are asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic. Here is why superspreading events dominate the spread of COVID-19.

The only way to be certain that symptoms are/are not COVID-19: get tested.


3 omicron variant symptoms you won’t get from the common cold:

  • A unique feature of COVID-19 is loss of sense of smell and taste, which you will not find in common cold viruses.
  • The other thing is that a common cold tends not to give high fever and sometimes severe headaches, which omicron is reporting these symptoms as predominant.
  • If you do have those symptoms, it’s much more concerning that you may have gotten COVID than the common cold virus.
  • Night sweats.

Per the Mayo Clinic, anyone who is not immune will get the Delta variant of COVID-19. Now Omicron is more contagious. Here is the CDC on Omicron. Omicron is not necessarily milder that Delta. Omicron has a (short) 10-day lag from infection to symptoms.It appears to be a bit milder than Delta. Those who are unvaccinated face only an 11% lower likelihood of hospitalization. Symptoms of Omicron, if mild, resemble the common cold, but those mildly affected can pass on that virus to those who may be hospitalized or die from it.

Covid-19/Omicron/BA-2 variant is not over. Yet newer variants are emerging.

During the proxy omicron period, we saw a maintenance of effectiveness of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer–BioNTech) vaccine (albeit at a reduced level) against hospital admission for Covid-19 that was presumed to have been caused by the omicron variant as compared with the rate associated with the delta variant earlier in the year.

Dr. Mike Ryan, director of the WHO’s health emergencies program, said unvaccinated people face a higher risk that an omicron infection will make them severely sick and and possibly even kill them.

Edward Walsh, M.D: Omicron can infect vaccinated people but seems to cause much milder disease in these people than it does in unvaccinated people.

This challenge study on humans volunteers showed that it takes just a tiny virus-laden droplet — about the width of a human blood cell — to infect someone with Covid-19.

Omicron cannot escape T cells; boosters protect households from Omicron. When antibodies fail to stop the virus from getting into our cells, T cells come to the rescue. So, avoid a high-fat (fast food) diet.

Children are among those suffering from the Omicron variant.

Eric Feigl-Ding

@DrEricDing Dec 30, 2021

“Mild” but hospitals overloaded. “Mild” but healthcare workers burnt out. “Mild” but thousands of flights cancelled. “Mild” but no booster shots for kids in under-ventilated schools. “Mild” brain damage. “Mild” collapse of society. …“Mild” my ass. #COVID19 #Omicron #LongCovid

The only way to be certain that symptoms are/are not COVID-19: get tested.ImageImage


Vitamin supplements aren’t beneficial to your immune system unless you are deficient.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, sales of vitamin C, vitamin D, zinc, elderberry, probiotics, and other dietary supplements increased despite a lack of evidence that they reduce the risk of COVID-19 or decrease COVID-19 symptoms. Here is a guide to dietary supplements while the COVID-19 pandemic is still raging.

Acetyl-L-cysteine → glutathione, could be anti-influenza (sometimes).

Vitamin A versus colds.

Vitamin B6 is vital to supporting biochemical reactions in the immune system. Vitamin B6 is a known anti-thrombosis and anti-inflammation nutrient. Vitamin B6 may help keep COVID-19’s cytokine storms at bay. Vitamin B6 is found in green vegetables and in chickpeas, which is the main ingredient in hummus.

Vitamin B12 supports CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. Low B12 caused CD4/CD8 lymphocyte ratio to be increased, and NK cell activity was depressed.

Vitamin C does not prevent colds, but may slightly improve immune function: the failure of vitamin C supplementation to reduce the incidence of colds in the general population indicates that routine vitamin C supplementation is not justified except for those in extreme situations. The recommended daily intake is 90 mg for men and 75 mg for women: easily gotten from fruits and veggies. According to Dr. Adrian Gombart, vitamin C, vitamin D, zinc, and an omega-3 fatty acid found in fish, docosahexaenoic acid, also known as DHA, are critical for immune function.

High-dose vitamin C, though, may help with infections. Continual high dosing of vitamin C is not recommended.

Vitamin C + zinc is not helpful for hastening COVID-19 recovery.

Vitamin D versus colds and seasonal epidemic influenza, among other maladies.
Vitamin D is effective versus covid-19 – despite the fact that covid-19 has been found to be not seasonal, like influenza is. Vitamin D may even reduce the chance of getting COVID-19. Here are studies suggesting that vitamin D may reduce the chance of hospitalization for COVID-19 patients. Here are other studies (and a supporting video) showing a significant effect of vitamin D in reducing the chance of disability and death for COVID-19 patients – especially the elderly. Vitamin D deficiency that is not sufficiently treated is associated with COVID-19 risk. Vitamin D may especially boost immunity of severely deficient patients. The obese need more vitamin D.

When a T cell is exposed to a foreign pathogen, it extends a signalling device or ‘antenna’ known as a vitamin D receptor, with which it searches for vitamin D,”, and if there is an inadequate vitamin D level, “they won’t even begin to mobilize.” In other words, adequate vitamin D is critically important for the activation of T-cells from their inactive naïve state.

Vitamin D may work via cathelicidins and defensins that can lower viral replication rates and reducing concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines that produce the inflammation that injures the lining of the lungs, leading to pneumonia, as well as increasing concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Vitamin D is required for white blood cell functioning. Vitamin D supports the innate immune system. Vitamin D is a secosteroid which binds to the same ACE 2 binding site as SARS COV 2. Vitamin D modulates a host of functions that are triggered from the ACE 2 receptor.

Oral vitamin D vs. influenza was demonstrated in 400 infants.
Oral vitamin D vs. influenza was shown by a study of 198 healthy adults.

Seasonal variations in sun exposure may explain the seasonality of influenza.
Vitamin D is a key regulator of host defense against infections by activating genes and pathways that enhance (regulate) innate and adaptive immunity. Vitamin D dramatically stimulates the expression of potent anti-microbial peptides such as cathelicidin and defensins, which exist in neutrophils, monocytes, natural killer cells, and in epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract where they play a major role in protecting the lung from infection. Vitamin D will reduce concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines: vitamin D deficiency has been found to contribute to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Vitamin D receptors are present in many cell types including various immune cells such as antigen-presenting-cells, T cells, B cells and monocytes. Vitamin D is a key factor linking innate and adaptive immunity, and both of these functions may be compromised under conditions of vitamin D insufficiency. Vitamin D up-regulates anti-microbial peptides.

Oral vitamin D appears able to suppress autoimmune diseases (especially combined with vitamin A).

If you supplement vitamin D, take it with a bit of fat. 2000 IU is optimum for most. The obese may benefit from 4,000 IU or as much as 10,000 IU per day. Dr Fauci is said to personally take 6000 IU of vitamin D daily. Make sure magnesium is adequate. Not only did males with the highest levels of active vitamin D in their blood have the greatest microbiome diversity, but also their gut harbored more friendly bacterial species that produce butyrate. So eat fiber and resistant starch.

Excessive oral vitamin D is immunosuppressive, and it can also cause too much calcium to build up in the body (hypercalcaemia). It is likely that in order to achieve the recommended 50 to 80 ng/ml level, you will also need to a high quality vitamin K supplement, and a well absorbed magnesium supplement. Why? These two are necessary to assimilate the vitamin D properly, and not cause issues like elevated calcium. Vitamin K helps calcium be deposited to your bones and not in your arteries! Taking too much may cause nausea, cramps, and feeling confused.

For those who are vitamin D deficient and feel like COVID-19 may be beginning, Dr. Thornburg describes that an adult should treat a cold/flu within 24 to 36 hours after onset with 50,000 IU of vitamin D3 once daily for 3 days (that’s a total of 150,000 IU over three days). But single large doses of vitamin D may not have the protective effect of previous, more moderate dosing.

Given that sun exposure-derived vitamin D is self-limiting, excessive vitamin D levels can be avoided. It seems likely that moderate sun exposure (without burning or excessive tanning) is the best method of getting adequate vitamin D, and boosting long-term (but not short-term) immunity. But about 1/3, if not 1/2 of people have enzyme defects that will not allow conversion of a cholesterol metabolite into vitamin D. The elderly and dark-skinned also have decreased capacity of human skin to produce vitamin D3. When one’s shadow is equal to one’s height, sun-derived vitamin D will not happen. The effects of sun exposure persist for months in most people. See the section below about sun exposure.

Sun exposure boosts infection-fighting T cells, independently of vitamin D synthesis. T cells may help against new COVID variants.

Vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant that helps the body fight off infection. Foods rich in vitamin E include nuts, seeds and spinach. While vitamin E deficiency is rarely seen, both animal and human studies suggest that intake above currently recommended levels may help restore T cell function which becomes impaired with aging. Do not supplement vitamin E, but get it from nuts and seeds.

Zinc is essential for multiple cellular functions including immunity.

Zinc functions as a modulator of the immune response. Even mild to moderate degrees of zinc deficiency can impair macrophage and neutrophil functions, natural killer cell activity, and complement activity [50]. The body requires zinc to develop and activate T-lymphocytes [2, 51]. Individuals with low zinc levels have shown reduced lymphocyte proliferation response to mitogens and other adverse alterations in immunity that can be corrected by zinc supplementation

Zinc may help prevent pneumonia in the elderly.

Zinc may prevent out-of-control inflammation that can be damaging and even deadly.

Zinc deficiency causes significant impairment in both adaptive and innate immune responses, and promotes systemic inflammation. Zinc deficiency also affects development of acquired immunity by preventing both the outgrowth and certain functions of T lymphocytes such as activation, Th1 cytokine production, and B lymphocyte help. Likewise, B lymphocyte development and antibody production, particularly immunoglobulin G, are compromised when zinc is insufficient.

Zinc versus influenza, and 75mg/day might shorten duration of colds, but more than 100 mg offered no additional benefit. Zinc lozenges should not contain citric acid, tartaric acid, glycine, mannitol, or sorbital, all of which bind to zinc. An never put zinc up one’s nose: that can lead to permanent loss of sense of smell.

Not too much: a 50 mg zinc supplement may be too much if taken daily. The recommended amount is 11 mg for men and 8 mg for women, and it can deplete copper. The top daily intake is 40 mg. Excess zinc reduced the function of T cells, a type of a white blood cell. Too much zinc can inhibit interleukin-1-dependent T cell stimulation. There are a lot of other nasty side effects of too much zinc. Those who live in rich countries may need to be even more cautious of zinc supplementation, because zinc may not be deficient to begin with.

Zinc deficiency may show up on ones finger nails. Soda depletes zinc.

Here are plant food sources of zinc. Quercetin and green tea may help zinc cross cell membranes within the body.

Here are tips on avoiding infectious disease.

Air pollution may make COVID-19 more lethal, even at “healthy” (low) levels. Air pollution has been correlated with COVID-19 spikes.

Air purifiers in a confined space may do more harm than good. The investigators found the risk of airborne virus transmission is lowest for low ventilation rates. “Our results show that installing an air purifier may increase the droplet spread,” Drikakis said. “The air intake integrated inside the purifier equipment induces flow circulation that can add to the transport of contaminated saliva droplets in the cabin.”

Airborne herbal immunity supplement is a scam.

Sugar, alcohol, and tobacco are immunosuppressants, fruits and vegetables help support and protect your immune system by providing the nutrition it needs.

Alcohol, especially in excess is bad news. If you drink small amounts every day, → immunity suffers:

Alcohol has a profound effect of inhibiting interferon production in monocytes. When the alcohol-influenced cells were exposed to a virus mimic, they produced only a quarter as much of the virus-fighting signalling molecule called type-1 interferon as teetotal monocytes made. Impaired type I interferon innate immune response has been linked to more severe COVID-19 infection. Interferon is pivotal, the first response to any viral infection – there’s no viral elimination without it. Drinking alcohol can damage the body’s dendritic cells, a vital component of the immune system.

Alcohol’s combined effects on both innate and adaptive immunity significantly weaken host defenses, predisposing chronic drinkers to a wide range of health problems, including infections and systemic inflammation. In addition to pneumonia, alcohol consumption has been linked to pulmonary diseases, including tuberculosis, respiratory syncytial virus, and ARDS. Alcohol disrupts ciliary function in the upper airways, impairs the function of immune cells (i.e., alveolar macrophages and neutrophils), and weakens the barrier function of the epithelia in the lower airways (see the article by Simet and Sisson). Often, the alcohol-provoked lung damage goes undetected until a second insult, such as a respiratory infection, leads to more severe lung diseases than those seen in nondrinkers.

Alfalfa vs. autoimmunity – in mice?

α-ketoglutarate (AKG) is a precursor of glutamine which functions as an immunomodulatory molecule, and takes part in proper function of intestines. Glutamine is an important fuel for lymphocytes and macrophages. During inflammatory states such as sepsis and injury, the consumption of glutamine by circulating and immune cells increases. Here are foods high in glutamine.

Andrographis might stimulate the immune system. It might help treat influenza.

Antibacterial soaps are bad news. Antibiotic treatment does not help, but may exacerbate viral infections. Antibiotics may wipe out gut bacteria that keep the influenza virus from spreading.

Antibiotics, alcohol, and junk food → autoimmune diseases.
Antibiotics dark side.

Antioxidants – best got by a plant-based diet – NOT antioxidant pills. Vitamin supplements aren’t

beneficial to your immune system unless you are deficient.

Anxiety can weaken the immune system.

Arsenic caution: how to remove arsenic while cooking rice.

Asafetida vs. influenza.

Aspartame messes with gut bacteria which can affect immunity.

Astaxanthin boosted immunity in the tuberculin skin test and invitro.

Some studies indicate that autophagy participates in trafficking events that activate innate and adaptive immunity.

Beta-cryptozanthin – from citrus and persimmons,  is a precursor of vitamin A, which is an essential nutrient needed for eyesight, growth, development and immune response.

Beta-glucans – from oats, baker’s and nutritional yeast, and mushrooms. Beta-glucans increase host immune defense by enhancing macrophages and natural killer cell function. Beta-glucans may activate macrophages. Beta-glucans may increase monocytes and cytokines. Beta-glucans are good for compromised immune systems. Beware of nutritional yeast lead contamination.

Benzoxazinoids, from grains, may be antimicrobial.

Black cumin is anti-inflammatory and it may augment T cell and natural killer cell-mediated immune responses.

Control blood pressure, even if one is young. In hypertension, it is thought that initial tissue damage by elevated blood pressure releases cellular debris that signals a localized immune response. In genetically predisposed individuals, this initial immune priming may lead to a more potent immune response and additional organ damage and hypertension.

Keep blood sugar low to control the severity of covid-19 infection, including less chance of a cytokine storm.This is especially important for diabetics. Coronavirus infects cells by attaching to the surface through a receptor called the angiotensin converting enzyme 2, or ACE2. Both the ACE2 and the virus need sugar molecules bound to their protein for this to work properly. High blood sugar increases the number of sugar-coated ACE2 receptors in the lungs of diabetic mice. Cytokine storms may not be the problem, though, for most COVID-19 patients who have trouble breathing.

Blueberries increase natural killer cell counts.

A good breakfast will increase immunity as shown by a study of 498 students.

Bromelain is immunomodulatory it may also enhance T cell receptor (TCR) and anti-CD28-mediated T cell proliferation.

Overdoing caffeine can raise cortisol levels which can hurt immunity.

Eat less (calorie restriction), especially less protein.
Calorie restriction vs. auto-immune diseases.
CR vs. malaria parasite infection.
CR works via down-regulating MTOR.CR works via DTH and T-cell proliferative response.
CR works via the FOXO transcription factor activation. CR works by limiting chronic inflammaton.
Calorie restriction may prevent immune over-reaction such a cytokine storms. Preventing over-reaction is important for survival.
Severe calorie restriction can zap white blood cells – not good if extreme.

The thymus gland

The thymus gland is a source of infection-fighting T cells. It tends to atrophy in most adults. But that does not need to be the case. Rejuvenation of the thymus gland can happen: The thymus glands in (>200) participants with limited calorie intake had less fat and greater functional volume after two years of calorie restriction, meaning they were producing more T cells than they were at the start of the study. But participants who weren’t restricting their calories had no change in functional volume.

The fact that this organ can be rejuvenated is, in my view, stunning because there is very little evidence of that happening in humans,” said Dixit. “That this is even possible is very exciting.”

About 14% CR for 2 years in healthy humans improved thymopoiesis and was correlated with mobilization of intrathymic ectopic lipid. CR-induced transcriptional reprogramming in adipose tissue implicated pathways regulating mitochondrial bioenergetics, anti-inflammatory responses, and longevity. Expression of the gene Pla2g7 encoding platelet activating factor acetyl hydrolase (PLA2G7) is inhibited in humans undergoing CR. Deletion of Pla2g7 in mice showed decreased thymic lipoatrophy, protection against age-related inflammation, lowered NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and improved metabolic health.

Exercise releases various proteins that can help maintain immunity, particularly muscle-derived cytokines such as IL-6, IL-7 and IL-15. The cytokine IL-6 has been shown to ‘direct’ immune cell trafficking toward areas of infection, while IL-7 can promote the production of new T-cells from the thymus and IL-15 helps to maintain the peripheral T-cell and NK-cell compartments, all of which work in concert to increase our resistance to infection. Exercise is especially beneficial for older adults who are more susceptible to infection in general and have also been identified as a particularly vulnerable population during this COVID-19 outbreak. T-cells are important for COVID-19 patients.

Here is a remarkable story of endurance cyclists, some of whom were 80, who had immune systems, including the thymus gland, that resembled those of a 20 year old.

Going to the gym, where people are breathing hard, may not be the best idea at the moment.

Oxidative stress can cause thymic atrophy.

Cannabis versus autoimmune disorders. High-CBD cannabis vs. covid-19? CBD (in cannabis) may reduce inflammatory cytokines. The immunomodulatory effect of CBD may also reduce immune over-reaction, which may lower the chance of a deadly cytokine storm. CBD may also reduce the chances of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Cannabis use disorder might hurt immunity.

Capsaicin (hot peppers: “In spleen cells of mice fed 20 ppm CAP (capsaicin) there was a greater T-cell mitogen induced, lymphocyte proliferative response. In addition, the number of antibody-producing B cells and serum IgG and IgM levels increased in mice fed 20 ppm CAP as compared to the control with no CAP.

Carotenes boost natural killer (NK) cell activity (best from dietnot supplements).

Chew your food well.

Chinese skullcap (Scutellaria baicarensis) – Extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis display a wide spectrum of antiviral activity.

There are antibiotic-resistant bacteria and viruses in chicken.

Chlorella may boost anti-inflammatory immune cell signals, favoring T Helper 1 activation.

Cholesterol drug caution: Cholesterol boosts the memory of the immune system.

Cinnamon is anti-bacterial, and has action vs. HIV virus (liver caution).

Mouse immunity may peak in the  morning (mice are nocturnal: mouse morning?)

The circadian clock/rhythm

A robust functional circadian oscillation will optimize immunity:
This implies time-restricted feeding: no late meals.
Circadian cues that control rest cycles and metabolism are primarily driven by light and food. Time restricted delivery of metabolites (food) imposes rhythmic availability of nutrients which resets peripheral clocks in a way that potentially exerts a positive impact on the immune response. Disrupting the circadian rhythm of feeding induces a variety of diet-dependent metabolic, immune and gastrointestinal alterations, which may explain the higher prevalence of obesity and immune-related gastrointestinal disorders among shift workers. A disrupted circadian rhythm reversibly induces detrimental effects on multiple biological processes.

Studies highlight the extent to which the molecular clock, most notably the core clock proteins BMAL1, CLOCK, and REV-ERBα, control fundamental aspects of the immune response.

Many immune parameters fluctuate in a circadian fashion.
Circadian expression is found in CD4+ T (immune) cells.
Circadian expression is found in macrophages.
Circadian expression is found in intestinal group 3 innate lymphoid cells.

Circadian clock genes are expressed in a circadian manner in human peripheral blood mononuclearcells (PBMCs), with the peak level occurring during the habitual time of activity.
A robust circadian oscillation helps mice clear a salmonella infection.
Exposure to pathogens least risky early in the day.
Late nights impair immunity.
When the timing systems in the human body are desynchronized, essential organs are compromised, reducing the potency of your immune system.
Circadian functioning is aided by dim evening (especially blue) light and nighttime darkness and morning bright light (sunlight). Time of food access is a time cue that entrains peripheral oscillators, so temporal timerestricted feeding may help synchronize one’s internal clock with the external world. In noturnal animals that were fed during daytime, the phase of
circadian gene expression in some peripheral organs such as liver, kidney, heart, and pancreas becomes uncoupled from the suprachiasmatic nuclei master pacemaker (SCN). Emerging findings from studies of animal models and human subjects suggest that intermittent energy restriction periods of as little as 16 h can improve health indicators and counteract disease processes.

Circadian functioning may be thrown off by chronic stress, but a functioning circadian clock may help one cope with stress.

A robust functional circadian oscillation boosted the immunity of mice. Restricting food intake to btween 6 am an 3 pm can significantly boost immunity.

Those who sleep consistently well, have lots of daytime energy, and seldom get sick probably have robust circadian oscillation to begin with, so they may not have to worry about the above.

Cleanliness is over-rated. Eat a little dirt: Mice raised in a sterile, germ-free environment have a faulty immune system.
Parasites modulate your immune response. When you have them, the number of cells involved in tamping down inflammation increases. Clean living is good for pathogens.
Farmhouse living versus autoimmune diseases.

Cloves feature eugenol which is immunomodulatory, and it may enhance natural killer activity.

Theanine (in green tea) may prime human Vgamma 2Vdelta 2 T cells in vitro and in vivo.

Colloidal silver is not useful vs. COVID-19.

Cordyceps might improve immunity by stimulating cells and specific chemicals in the immune system.

Cranberry polyphenols might enhance human γδ-T cell proliferation and reduces the number of symptoms associated with colds and influenza.

Cruciferous veggies feature sulforaphane. Sulforaphane significantly enhances natural killer (NK) cell activity. The best source is broccoli sprouts sprouted in darkness. Radish sprouts may be more potently anti-cancer than broccoli sprouts. The addition of radish, rocket and rape sprouts to broccoli sprouts could promote the hydrolysis of the glucoraphanin to anticancer effective sulforaphane to 2.03, 2.32 and 1.95-fold, respectively, compared to single broccoli sprouts. Meanwhile, the formation of non-bioactive sulforaphane nitrile in these three groups decreased greatly. Broccoli sprouts vs. influenza virus.

Cumin stimulated the T cells and Th1 cytokines expression in normal animals.

Curcumin may cause a modest but measurable increase in levels of a protein that’s known to be important in the “innate” immune system (found in turmeric). Curcumin also works via inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) enzyme. Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic compound, could be a potential treatment option for patients with coronavirus disease. Some of the potential effects of curcumin such as inhibiting the entry of virus to the cell include inhibiting encapsulation of the virus and viral protease, as well as modulating various cellular signaling pathways. Curcumin may also help avoid a cytokine storm.

Dental diligence: Gum disease bacteria selectively disarm the immune system. Periodontitis produces an inflammatory response that may spread through the body — scientists have previously linked the condition to other systemic issues. People with periodontitis were 8.8 times more likely to die of COVID-19.

A common ingredient in cough medicines, dextromethorphan, stimulated the growth of SARS-CoV-2 in monkey cells in lab dishes.

Patients with T2DM and metabolic syndrome might have up to ten-times greater risk of death when they contract COVID-19.

Dioxin exposure is bad news: minimized with a plant-based diet.


Disinfecting surfaces: Consider using soap and water instead of a disinfectant—soap and water are known to kill the virus that causes COVID-19.

Opt for hydrogen peroxide-based disinfectants over bleach, as Kahan notes “Hydrogen peroxide is still much less potentially harmful than bleach.” COVID-19 rarely spreads through surfaces. So why are we still deep cleaning?

A little dirt is good: Mice raised in a sterile, germ-free environment have a faulty immune system.

Parasites modulate your immune response. When you have them, the number of cells involved in tamping down inflammation increases. Clean living is good for pathogens.

Consider opening a window, turning on a range hood, or using your central air system—ventilation can dramatically reduce levels of pollutants circulating in the air and is one of the most effective methods of removing particles that can carry viruses.

Living with a dog and buying basic products in the supermarket with home delivery were two of the socio-demographic variables (of those analyzed) that most increased the risk of contracting COVID-19 by 78% in the case of living with a dog, and by 94% in that of supermarket home delivery. Variants of the ACE2 receptor in humans followed by ferrets, cats, dogs, and civets have the highest binding affinities to the viral spike protein, while mice, rats, chicken, and ducks have poor binding energy.

Group drumming increased natural killer cell activity in one study.

Echinacea is not helpful for viral infections.

Elderberry extract (Sambucus nigra) vs. influenza. Supplementation with elderberry may reduce upper respiratory symptoms due to cold and flu.

Endocrine disruptors can impair the development and proper functioning of the reproductive, nervous and immune systems in humans and animals, and can affect future generations. Here is a list of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

Eye protection is recommended for avoiding COVID-19. Eyeglass-wearers may have extra protection from COVID-19 because they tend to touch their eyes less frequently than most people.


Exercise of of moderate intensity helps, but no marathons.

Just a single bout  will help – in untrained people. Acute exercise is an immune system adjuvant that improves defense activity and metabolic health.

Exercise boosts “cellular innate immune function“.

Exercise dials down the enzyme that inhibits neutrophil functioning and also benefits T-cells.

Chronic resistance exercise training improves natural killer cell activity.

Aerobic fitness is associated with lower proportions of senescent blood T-cells.

Exercise works via leukocytosis and a redistribution of effector cells.

Exercise generates immune cells in bone.

Exercise + calorie restriction may overcome ahigh-fat diet.

Exercise may reduce mortality of influenza.

Physical activity (PA) before COVID-19 infection was associated with a reduced risk of moderate illness severity and a reduced risk of experiencing fatigue, dry cough and chest pain, suggesting that engaging in PA may be an effective approach to minimise the severity of COVID-19.

Regular exercise may reduce the risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Maximal exercise capacity is independently and inversely associated with the likelihood of hospitalization due to COVID-19. A single session of exercise increases the production of a critical antioxidant, called EcSOD, helping to reduce the effects of COVID-19 infection. Exercise also keeps blood sugar low, which also may help avoid a cytokine storm – see blood sugar, above. Exercising at moderate to vigorous intensity can reduce chronic low-grade inflammation and improve various immune markers in several disease states including cancer, HIV, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cognitive impairment and obesity (obesity is an immune system threat, see below). Exercise acts a countermeasure for latent viral reactivation: this may help protect the nervous system, the heart, and the brain.

Lymphocyte immune-surveillance, whereby cells search tissues for antigens derived from viruses, bacteria, or malignant transformation, is thought to be facilitated by the transient lymphocytosis and subsequent lymphocytopenia induced by exercise bouts.

Exercise releases various proteins that can help maintain immunity, particularly muscle-derived cytokines such as IL-6, IL-7 and IL-15. The cytokine IL-6 has been shown to ‘direct’ immune cell trafficking toward areas of infection, while IL-7 can promote the production of new T-cells from the thymus and IL-15 helps to maintain the peripheral T-cell and NK-cell compartments, all of which work in concert to increase our resistance to infection. Exercise is especially beneficial for older adults who are more susceptible to infection in general and have also been identified as a particularly vulnerable population during this COVID-19 outbreak.

Higher cardiorespiratory fitness attenuates the risk associated with obesity and high blood pressure, and mediates the risk associated with various socioeconomic factors. An unhealthy lifestyle is synonymous with an elevated risk of non-communicable disease is also a risk factor for COVID-19 hospital admission, which might be partly explained by low grade inflammation.

Forces created from walking or running are transmitted from bone surfaces along arteriolar blood vessels into the marrow inside bones. Bone-forming cells that line the outside of the arterioles sense these forces and are induced to proliferate. The bone-forming cells also secrete a growth factor that increases the frequency of cells that form lymphocytes around the arterioles. Lymphocytes are the B and T cells that allow the immune system to fight infections.

Among athletes that have been infected, 60% of them have lingering inflammation of the heart tissue. They need to rest until that heart inflammation is completely resolved. This is what happened to one who exercised too soon.

Exercise may work via lactate.

The next several links are from this informative video: It seems reasonable that the beneficial effects of regular physical acitivity on immune function are at least partly mediated by mitochondrial fitness, as outlined further. Both low mitochondrial fitness and low cardiorespiratory fitness may be important risk factors for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

Mitochondrial health may determine differential vulnerabilities to SARS-CoV-2 infection rendering markers of mitochondrial functions promising potential biomarkers for SARS-CoV-2 infection risk and severity of outcome.

Being elderly is no excuse to avoid exercise

Exercise works even in 80-yr olds.

This this remarkable study, 125 long-distance (endurance) cyclists, some now in their 80s, were found to have the immune systems of 20-year-olds. Here is why:  Compared with their less active counterparts, the cyclists had significantly higher serum levels of the thymoprotective cytokine IL-7 and lower IL-6, which promotes thymic atrophy.

This study of 29 elderly women with sedentary lifestyle (mean age: 67.03 ± 3.74 years) who took part in a 6-week long functional conditioning gymnastic exercise program. At the end of exercise program, in parallel with improvements in body composition and physical performance, significant changes in naïve and memory lymphocyte ratios were observed. Importantly, levels of naïve T cells elevated, ratios of effector memory T cells decreased and distribution of memory B cells rearranged as well.

A lack of physical activity, decreased muscle mass, and poor nutritional status facilitate immunosenescence and inflammaging. Lifestyle factors such as exercise and dietary habits affect immune aging positively. Regular exercise in old age appears to be associated with improved NK-cell functioning. Aerobic fitness may have a strong impact on changes in T-cells with aging. Regular physical activity is able to reverse age-associated changes in lymphocyte subpopulations and to partially reduce the age-related decline of T-cell functions.

Exercise may attenuate immunosenescence. In recent years, the role of exercise in modulating immune response has been examined using models that may have clinical relevance, such as the response to vaccines and novel antigens. Taken together, the accumulated data suggest that exercise may be an efficacious therapy for restoring immune function in the elderly. In general, long term exercise interventions appear to show the most promise. Exercise related improvements have been reported with respect to antibody titre, T cell function, macrophage response, alterations of the T(H)1/T(H)2 cytokine balance, the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and changes in naïve/memory cell ratio.

Face mask construction and use

Face masks proven to work against COVID-19 spread. Masks are are most effective if everyone wears them.

This systematic review of 13 studies, including four community-based and nine healthcare-based studies showed that mask wearers are less likely to get infected with COVID-19.

Mask instructions from Johns Hopkins Medicine

Kaiser + video.

Home made N95(?)masks.

Surgical (not N95) masks may help avoid infection. Here is how to make a surgical mask fit better.

A mask mandate worked in Kansas.

Cloth masks do protect the wearer somewhat: breathing in less coronavirus means you may get less sick, sometimes calledvariolation. The association between viral load and disease severity suggests that poor viral infection control by the immune system is a major pathogenic contributor to severe COVID-19. Suboptimal response to initial infection can be causative of re-infection and even long-COVID.

If cloth masks are used in a healthcare setting, they should be machine washed to remain effective. Damp (from breath) cotton face masks are even better. Face shields are ineffective.

Dried baby wipes, which can be swapped out, make surprisingly good filters. Baby wipes are typically made of spunlace and spunbond polypropylene–similar to the types of polypropylene found in medical masks and N95 respirators.

Homemade masks offer modest protection  from transmitting or catching a viral illness. Simple cloth masks present a pragmatic solution for use by the public. This has been supported by most health bodies. Masks may be more important than hand washing. More layers means better protection. The best mask, of course is N95. “An N95 that’s well-fitted clearly is the best that you can do,” National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Director Dr. Anthony Fauci told CNN Friday. “You could get production of that at a much higher rate now.”

If you can tolerate a tight-fitting KN95, which is the Chinese equivalent to the N95, or an FFP2, which is the European equivalent, that’s probably your best option, especially when you’re in high-risk settings such as supermarkets and public transportation. Here are authorized face masks.

The preponderance of evidence indicates that mask wearing reduces transmissibility per contact by reducing transmission of infected respiratory particles in both laboratory and clinical contexts. The virus itself is only about 0.1 µm in diameter. But because viruses don’t leave the body on their own, a mask doesn’t need to block particles that small to be effective.

Here is a randomized controlled trial in Pakistan that demonstrated the efficacy of mask wearing.

One way the masks work is by electrostatically attracting particles that are, inevitably, small enough to otherwise pass through the mask.

While evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 is commonly transmitted through close contact and respiratory droplets, updated definitions of aerosols show that larger respiratory particles (<100 μm) can remain airborne for extended periods. Larger droplets are more easily stopped by fabric face masks. there 

Masks are not a substitute for social distancing, but they do help avoid infection. “The data is clearly there that masking works, masking saves lives.”  Masks protect the wearer as well as those close by. Masks can help protect pandemic gains. Masks safeguard even the vaccinated.

Masks are especially useful indoors per the CDC.

visual abstract showing that long distance (>2m) airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 can occur in indoor settings such as restaurants, workplaces, and choir venues. Factors such as insufficient air replacement probably contributed to transmission. Appropriate mitigation measures such as adequate ventilation are important in indoor settings.

Masking also works during air travel. Some may question the utility of mask wearing due to this Danish study, but that study did not consider the kind of mask worn (bandanas and neck gaitors offer minimal protection).

SARS-CoV-2 can travel via fine aerosols, perhaps even more commonly than droplet transmission, further confirmed by animal studies. The time-of-flight to reach 2 m is only a few seconds resulting in a viral dose above the minimum required for infection, implying that physical distancing in the absence of ventilation is not sufficient to provide safety for long exposure times.

Bandanna masks or dust masks offer almost no protection. Here are multiple guides on face mask materials. Gaiter masks/neck fleeces that are thin do not offer much protection, and bandanas/knitted masks are not much better. WHO recommends that fabric masks have three layers: an inner layer that absorbs, a middle layer that filters, and an outer layer made from a nonabsorbent material like polyester. Silk in particular has electrostatic properties that can help trap smaller viral particles. This is true regardless of the indoor/outdoor weather.

On average 1000 infectious virus particles are transmitted from one infected person to the next. Accumulating epidemiologic evidence from this pandemic suggests that when masks are worn, the overall severity of illness is lower due, perhaps, to a lower viral dose. The proportion of those infected who remain asymptomatic is higher, and the probability of dying is lower.

“We know that the most likely entry point for the virus is the nose, so there seems to be a connection between the part of the brain that is located directly next to that entry point,” says Dr. Zulfi Haneef, assistant professor of neurology/neurophysiology at Baylor and one of two co-authors of this study.” The SARS-CoV-2 virus enters the brain via the nose. In mice exposed to COVID-19 through the nasal passage, researchers noted a rapid and escalated attack on the brain by the virus that triggered a more severe outcome of the infection, even after the lungs were cleared of the disease. Researchers also found virus levels were over 1,000 times higher in the brain than other parts of the body, so make sure your face mask covers the nose.

An alternative to the above might be a do-it-yourself saline nasal spray.

Proper mask-wearing remains a key factor in preventing the transmission of the coronavirus. A mask slip can leave the wearer extremely vulnerable, as the nasal passage is a common entryway for the virus to get into the body. According to a study in Nature Medicine, the virus attaches to certain proteins found in the nasal passage. There are actually more of these proteins in the nose than in the lungs, making an exposed nose a serious threat. You don’t want any viral particles getting to your nose, so it’s imperative that your mask has a tight fit. How to make your mask fit tighter.

If your mask fogs up your glasses, then, clearly, it leaks around the nose. The fit of a mask may be even more important than the material it is made from. 

Wearing a mask with low (less than 30%) filtration efficiency can be worse than without. A poor mask changes the airflow around the face, so that instead of air entering the mouth and nose through specific paths, air enters the mouth and nose through the entire mask surface but at lower speeds. The lower speed near the face favors the inhalation of aerosols into the nose, so even though masks filter out certain numbers of particles, more particles escaping mask filtration can enter the respiratory tract.

Even the best face masks are not 100% effective – social distancing is still needed.

Here is a suggested test for how well you face mask protects other people from you.

Don’t fall for these masking myths. Face masks are also recommended outdoors. Face masks for the clueless. Face masks do not deprive one of oxygen. Exercising, even intensely,  with a face mask is safe according to Mayo Clinic and Mercy. WHO says don’t wear a mask during vigorous exercise, but that advice has been criticized.

The positive thing about masks is in general that they reduce the loss of breathing moisture in dry air – as well as in overheated rooms – and hence, keep the mucous membranes moist and lower the penetration depth of the aerosols into the airways. Here is the CDC’s guide to masks.

High levels of humidity can limit the spread of a virus to the lungs by promoting mucociliary clearance (MCC), a defense mechanism that removes mucus − and potentially harmful particles within the mucus − from the lungs. High levels of humidity can also bolster the immune system by producing special proteins, called interferons, that fight against viruses − a process known as the interferon response. At all temperatures, the thick cotton mask led to the most increased level of humidity.

In theory, wearing two or more masks at the same time may seem to increase your amount of protection, but most likely that’s a counter-productive strategy. Dr. John Brooks, chief medical officer for the CDC’s COVID-19 emergency response, said the research results suggest that combining the close fit of a cloth mask with the filtration of a surgical mask is a good option. If two masks are worn, the fit of those masks becomes even more important.

Double-masking is wearing a cotton mask over a medical-procedure mask. Knotting and tucking entails tying a knot in the elastic loops that go over your ears, close to where they attach to the mask. Then, you tuck the extra mask fabric into the gap that is often present where the ear loops attach to the mask, and flatten that part as much as possible. Both of these tricks to make a better fit decrease the mask-wearers’ exposure to potentially infectious aerosols by 95% as compared with wearing no mask at all. That’s a 15% improvement over the 80% efficiency found when using a single surgical mask.

Here are methods for improving the fit of surgical masks and all masks. Here is the CDC guide to masks.

The Constitution doesn’t have a problem with mask mandates.

This is the new normal. A team of researchers at the University of Edinburgh, UK, found that consistent mask-wearing was associated with positive well-being among their participants.

The COVID-19 hygiene precautions have dropped US influenza cases to 1-2% of last-year’s levels (48 lab-reported cases last week, versus ~3,000 last year). Young people, especially, are vulnerable to COVID fatigue, causing them to rebel against mask wearing and social distancing.

Relaxing restrictions like mask-wearing and social distancing when most people have been vaccinated greatly increases the risk of vaccine-resistant variants of the virus that causes COVID-19.

Social Distancing

Indoors (gyms and restaurants) with other people is where one is most likely to catch COVID-19. Here is a gym case study. Gyms may be safer than crowded bars or restaurants “…the overall “visits to virus” ratio of 0.002% is “statistically irrelevant” because only 1,155 cases of coronavirus were reported among more than 49 million gym visits. Similarly, data collected from gyms in the United Kingdom found only 17 cases out of more than 8 million visits in the weeks after gyms reopened there.”

Eating outdoors, surrounded by plastic sheeting, is akin to eating inside. When the weather outside is cold, heating dries the air, increasing the SARS-CoV-2 lifetime. But …elevating the temperature to about 93 degrees F for 30 minutes degraded the outer structure. The effect was stronger on the dry particles than on the liquid-protected ones. In contrast, surfaces at about 71 degrees F caused little to no damage, suggesting that particles in room temperature conditions or outside in cooler weather will remain infectious longer…surfaces at about 71 degrees F caused little to no damage, suggesting that particles in room temperature conditions or outside in cooler weather will remain infectious longer. A free online COVID-19 risk calculator is featured here.

Indoors is where the 6-foot distancing guideline is especially inadequate. Minimize time spent in the hospital, or anywhere indoors. Of most concern is the large fraction of speech aerosol that is intermediate-sized because it remains suspended in air for minutes and can be transported over considerable distances by convective air currents. Getting COVID-19 bad can mess with one’s neurology, so pre-dose with vitamin D, strengthen lungs and heart with exercise, shed extra pounds, and eat a plant-based diet: see elsewhere in this blog post.

Intermittent fasting for immune  system rejuvenation (bone health concern).

Fasting for treating autoimmune diseases. Fasting reversed immunosuppresion in mice.

Fevers may help fight off infection, unless it is prolonged, which may cause lung injury. Treating fever may spread influenza. Raising the core body temperature to 39C or 102.2F sends the innate immune system’s interferons into high gear to defeat SARS-CoV-2, no matter what the variant.

Fasting during fevers may help avoid auto-immune diseases.

Fish oil can boost the innate and the adaptive immune system.
Fish oil targets B cell lipid microdomains and enhances ex vivo and in vivo B cell function.
Resolvins from omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil) could prevent COVID-19 cytokine storms.
Fish oil vs. autoimmunediseasevs. inflammation, versusinfluenza, and vs. COVID-19.
Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil may improve COVID-19 associated mood symptoms via immunomodulation. But stay under 4 grams per day of fish oil due to the threat of atrial fibrillation.
Contaminated fish (most fish are contaminated) caution. Too much fish oil may cause atrial fibrillation.

Food safety: spoiled food can harbor Staphylococcus aureus. But don’t worry about corona virus in food.

Forest bathing: The benefits of immersion in nature was shown by 140 studies involving more than 290 million people.

Consuming a diet high in the sugar fructose might prevent the proper functioning of peoples’ immune systems. Fructose causes the immune system to become inflamed and that process produces more reactive molecules which are associated with inflammation. Inflammation of this kind can go on to damage cells and tissues and contribute to organs and body systems not working as they should and could lead to disease. The fiber in fruits make their fructose OK to consume.

Salt water and/or green tea gargling might prevent the common cold.

Garlic: best raw, it may up-regulate 7 immunity-related genes. Pre-clinical data demonstrated that garlic has potential antiviral activity against different human, animal and plant pathogenic viruses through blocking viral entry into host cells, inhibiting viral RNA polymerase, reverse transcriptase, DNA synthesis and immediate-early gene 1(IEG1) transcription, as well as through down-regulating the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. The alleviation of viral infection was also shown to link with immunomodulatory effects of garlic. Clinical studies further demonstrated a prophylactic effect of garlic in the prevention of widespread viral infections in humans through enhancing the immune response.

Ginger raised neutrophil count in a study of 68 male Saudi healthcare workers.

American ginseng

Korean red ginseng vs. influenza.

Panax ginseng

Individuals taking a class of steroid hormones called glucocorticoids for conditions such as asthma, allergies and arthritis on a routine basis may be unable to mount a normal stress response and are at high risk if they are infected with the virus causing COVID-19

Green tea, versus influenza virus. EGCG may regulate innate immune functioning. Chemical compounds in foods or beverages like green tea, muscadine grapes, and dark chocolate can bind to and block the function of a particular enzyme, or protease, in the SARS-CoV-2 virus. There is no good evidence that green tea or it’s extract can prevent or treat COVID-19.

A healthy, diverse gut microbiome for better immunity

A healthy gut microbiome: may be one of the factors responsible for lower case fatality ratio (CFR) from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). An approach using tailored nutrition and supplements known to improve the intestinal microbiota and its immune function might help minimize the impact of the disease at least on people at higher risk from coronavirus.

Trillions of microbes inhabit the human intestine, forming a complex ecological community that influences normal physiology and susceptibility to disease through its collective metabolic activities and host interactions.

Approximately 70% of the immune system is localized in the gastrointestinal tract: its glands, mucosa, and mucosa-associated lymphoid system. Alterations of these gut microbial communities can cause immune dysregulation, leading to autoimmune disorders. The symbiotic gut microbiota modulate health and disease of the host through a series of transgenomic metabolic and immune regulatory axes. Defensive microbes can ‘steal’ vital proteins from pathogens to make themselves stronger, causing the pathogens to evolve to produce fewer such proteins. A plant based rich fiber diet replenishes the host gut microbiota with beneficial microbes thereby leading to a symbiotic association conferring various health benefits to the host including enhanced immunity which might have resulted in better prognosis of COVID-19 patients. A healthy, diverse gut microbiome may prevent nerve damage from viral infections. The gut microbiome influences the lung microbiome, termed as Gut-Lung axis.

Gut bacteria conferring resistance to diseases include Roseburia, is abundant where the Mediterranean diet is consumed. Another, Lachnospiraceae, is positively associated with unprocessed foods (e.g. meat/fish, fruit) but negatively with processed food groups (e.g. processed meat, savoury snacks). Eubacterium is depleted by diets high in fructose (fruit juices, sodas). Prevotella is anti-inflammatory and is associated with plant-based diets.

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are produced by various bacterial groups. They include acetate (50–70%; formed by many bacterial taxa), propionate (10–20%; synthesized by Bacteroidetes and certain Firmicutes), and butyrate (10–40%; generated by a few Clostridia).153 SCFAs influence immune responses in the gut and those associated with peripheral circulation and distal body sites154,155,156,157,158SCFAs produced by microbiota enhanced B cell metabolism and gene expression and supported optimal homeostatic and pathogen-specific antibody responses.159

Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome. The animal-based diet increased the abundance of bile-tolerant microorganisms (Alistipes, Bilophila, and Bacteroides) and decreased the levels of Firmicutes that metabolize dietary plant polysaccharides (Roseburia, Eubacterium rectale, and Ruminococcus bromii). A plant-based diet led to a decrease in the pathobionts such as the Enterobacteriaceae and an increase in commensurable microbes such as Bacteroides fragilis and Clostridium species belonging to clusters XIVa and IV, resulting in reduced intestinal lipocalin-2 and short-chain fatty acids levels.

Consume inulin (defined) and oligofructose (defined). Diet-derived Short Chain Fatty Acids boosted CD8+ T cell effector function by enhancing cellular metabolism via FFAR3 and fatty acid oxidation and increasing viral clearance. This experiment in mice showed that short chain fatty acids (SFCAs) protected mice against intranasal infection. These findings suggested that the observed enhancement of immune responses is independent of the effect of SCFAs on ACE2-mediated viral entry. SCFAs enhanced T-cell antiviral responses, antibody neutralization, and spike-specific B and T cells.

Consume some resistant starch. Eat foodssuch as beans, which is not only prebiotic, but it also feeds butyrate producing bugs.

A plant-based diet supplies dietary (better than supplemental) fiber, and complex carbs. Mice fed a high fiber diet showed prolonged survival, an improved clinical score and enhanced lung elasticity with better lung function.

A plant-based diet means less pathogenic bugs in the gut.

The good bugs produce drug-like molecules.

Beans mean less putrefactive bacteria in the gut.

Aspartame messes with gut bacteria which can affect immunity.

Bifidobacteria may prevent a COVID-19 infection from progressing to a bout of long-COVID. Bifidobacteria  and Lactobacillus ( anti-pathogenic and anti-inflammatory effects) thrive on dietary fiber and dietary polyphenols. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Eubacterium rectale (consume resistant starch and kiwi) have similar benefits. It is raised by consumption of fiber and inulin so eat onions and yams. 

Conversely, Individuals with low microbial gene count have more systemic inflammation, adiposity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Low gene count individuals gained more weight over time and were dominant in Bacteroides and Ruminococcus genera. Ruminococcus In an analogous study involving 49 overweight or obese individuals, following an energy-restricted diet for six weeks was observed to partially restore microbial gene richness. COVID patients had higher numbers of Ruminococcus gnavus species than people without the infection.

COVID-19 patients also had less Eubacterium rectale, which is increased by consumption of polyphenols.

High uric acid level may make a SARS-CoV-2 infection much worse, perhaps bad enough to kill. High uric acid is due to a junky (high sugar) diet, obesity, too much alcohol, and a purine-rich diet: too much liver, game meat, anchovies, sardines, gravy, dried beans and peas, mushrooms, and other foods

Vitamin D improves gut flora.

Exercise can enhance the number of beneficial microbial species, enrich the microflora diversity, and improve the development of commensal bacteria. All these effects are beneficial for the host, improving its health status.

Shown by a study of mice.

Shown by a study of 37 breast cancer survivors.

Be slim and fit.

Be social.

Have pets: this was shown by a study of people and animals in Africa.

Forever chemicals may impair the immune system, including a blunted response to vaccination. The list of chemical bad guys include PFAS (per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances) and also bisphenols. Exposure to excessive forever chemicals may be the reason why some get COVID-19 repeatedly. Here is another video  presenting more information on these immune-suppressing toxins, including  strategies to minimize personal exposure. Microwave popcorn, syrofoam containers, and nonstick pans can be sources of polyfluoroalkyl substances. Bisphenols occur in canned foods, register receipts, water bottles, and epoxy resins that coat some metal food cans. Reverse osmosis water filters and carbon filters are helpful in reducing these chemicals in drinking water.

Hand washing

Handwashing (insist on it when hospitalized) – for20 seconds. Wash your hands like you just got done slicing jalapenos for some nachos and you need to take your contacts out.

This systematic review and meta-analysisshows that and washing is still important for avoiding COVID-19 infections.

Cold water isjust as effective as hot/warm water.

How tomake your own hand sanitizer. Keep hand sanitizer dispensersaway from toddlers.

Rejectnon-alcohol hand sanitizers.

Happiness may boost the immune system. Happy people enjoy low levels of inflammatory gene expression and strong expression of antiviral and antibody genes. Persistent bitterness can cause illness.

Heavy metals can cause immunologic disorders. A plant-based diet can help avoid, and detoxify mercury, lead, and cadmium.

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) (the virus that normally causes cold sores) be linked tosevere COVID-19.

High indoor humidity versus influenza, vs. norovirus, vs. covid-19.

Paul Stamets’ Host Defense is unreliable, low quality.

Hugs lower stress better immmunity.

Humming vs. chronic rhinosinusitis and allergic rhinitis.

Hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) is a poisonous gas that, when produced endogenously (via calorie restriction, cysteine restriction, and methionine restriction (sulfur sources)), provides immune system (and other) benefits including reduce H2S-induced inflammation and lower blood pressure. It may be a bit counterintuitive that restricting sulfur-containing cysteine and methionine can boost endogenous H₂S production, but that is where the evidence points! Beef: it’s what’s rotting in your colon!

Hydrotherapy (hot and cold water) for whatever ails one. Here is a (hydrotherapy)site mentioned by Dr. Seheult. Also relevant is this site: Cold water therapy candemarginate white blood cells from the vascular wall and microvasculature into the main circulation, significantly elevating the effective white blood cell count. Exposure to cold water has a long history. A sauna or a hot shower may improve interferon status by simulating a fever. A hot shower followed by a cold shower (contrasting shower) is suggested by Dr. Suheult for stimulating immunity.

Pre-existing chronic inflammation, as reflected in a high C-reactive protein (CRP) level, is predictive of a tragic COVID-19 outcome in the form a cytokine storm. This may be one reason why the elderly have poor COVID-19 outcomes. A vegan diet provides for low chronic inflammation via gut bacteria. Here are vitamins and supplements to fight chronic inflammation.

Butyrate production (from resistant starch) has been correlated to the capacity to induce IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine.

The level on one’s chronic inflammation can predict the occurrence of immune system decline in otherwise healthy individuals.

The innate immune system may be more important for those who get COVID-19 than the adaptive immune system.

Avoid iron overload: heme iron is especially problematic because it is absorbed at a constant rate, regardless of iron status, unlike non-heme (plant-based) iron sources. Iron is required, though, for innate immunity. Iron is necessary for immune cells, particularly lymphocytes, associated with the generation of a specific response to infection. But excess iron could potentially facilitate the development of infections and the invasion of tumoral cells.

A high serum ferritin level is predictive of a tragic COVID-19 infection outcome via a cytokine storm.

A plant-based diet is beneficial in reducing serum ferritin level. A study reported that vegetarian females had lower metabolic syndrome incidence, which was related with lower serum ferritin level compared to non-vegetarians. Intake of red meat and iron supplements – especially when combined with vitamin C, promotes a high ferritin level.

Get an influenza shot, or nasal spray, and look forward to it, despite any decreased effectiveness.

Flavonoids are antiviral. Flavonoids are abundant in plant foods.

Laughter is medicinal.

Licorice root features glycyrrhizin which may inhibit influenza virus replication, but not too much!

Limonene boosted phagocytic activity in rats, found in lemons and cannabis.

Waiting room magazines are filthy.

Healthy people who undergo a single session of Swedish Massage experienced measureable changes in their body’s immune and endocrine response.

mTor activation → autoimmune diseases

mTOR is activated by Arginine supplementation, Overnutrition (eating too much), and too much protein.

Magnesium is important for innate and acquired immune response.

Meat → autoimmune diseases. There is fecal bacteria in meat glue. A study of 475,000 UK adults showed that higher consumption of unprocessed red meat and processed meat was associated with higher risk of pneumonia.

There are antibiotic-resistant bacteria and viruses in chicken.

Meditation: – may work, in part, by reducingstress (see below). Anxiety can weaken the immune system.

Shown by a study of154 adults.

Mindfulness meditation mightaffect markers of inflammation, cell-mediated immunity.


Many data suggest the existence of both nuclear and membrane receptors for melatonin in the immune system. Melatonin stimulates the production of progenitor cells for granulocytes-macrophages. It also stimulates the production of NK cells and CD4+ cells and inhibits CD8+ cells. Melatonin acts through lymphocyte receptors, and perhaps, receptors on other immune tissues, to modulate immune cells. Many data suggest the existence of both nuclear and membrane receptors for melatonin in the immune system. Melatonin may be useful for autoimmune diseases. Melatonin declines with age: those who are young probably have plenty.

Analysis of patient data from Cleveland Clinic’s COVID-19 registry also revealed that melatonin usage wasassociated with a nearly 30 percent reduced likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) after adjusting for age, race, smoking history, and various disease comorbidities. This was just a preliminary observational study. It could be that people to take melatonin are more health conscious.

Melatonin was found to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 entry into mice brains

Melatonin supplements can prevent pathophysiological consequences of COVID-19 disease.

Near-infrared radiation can, due to it’s longer waveleangth, penetrate deep into the skin, even through clothing. This increases the production of mid-day melatonin which will quench the oxidative stress that is otherwise seen by the mitochondria when sick with viral illness including COVID-19. This melatonin also upregulates gluthione peroxidase, another important endogenous antioxidant.

Melatonin produced in this way acts differently from melatonin produced by the pineal gland in the evening hours in response to dim light.

It has now been shown that the mitochondria produce melatonin in many cells in quantities which are order of magnitude higher than that produced in the pineal gland. This subcellular melatonin does not necessarily fluctuate with our circadian clock or release into the circulation system, but instead has been proposed to be consumed locally ikn response to the free radical density within each cell, in particular in response to Near Infrared (NIR) exposure.

Angiotensin-II which is a pro-oxidant, is converted into angiotensin-1,7 which is anti-oxidant. The enzyme that does this is ACE-2. This is the same ACE-2 that is the receptor for the spike protein. Infection with SARS-CoV-2 knocks out the ACE-2 enzyme by binding to it, resulting in an increase in angiotensin-II and a decrease in angiotensin-1,7, increasing oxidative stress. This is why both day and night-time melatonin is so important.

Near-infrared light can also directly inhibit inflammation due the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.

Mercury from fish → autoimmune diseases.


Dietary intake of Agaricus bisporus (white button) mushroom accelerates salivary immunoglobulin A secretion in healthy volunteers.

Most mushrooms, including the common white button, feature ergothionene.

White button mushrooms show immunostimulatory activity on human THP-1 derived macrophages.

White button mushrooms feature lectins which are immunomodulatory.

Music was shown to benefit immunity by a review of over 400 research papers in the neurochemistry of music.

Methylene Blue may be able to protect against (potentially deadly) Black Fungus.

Treating patients infected with COVID‐19 withglutathione and NAD+ precursors can restore metabolic function and thus aid the recovery of COVID‐19 patients. lead to a more rapid symptom‐free recovery, suggesting a role for such a therapeutic regime in the treatment of infections leading to respiratory problems.

Nasal sprays that are based on povidone-iodine, hydrogen peroxide, cyclodextrins, and the synthetic drug PUL-042 may helpprevent infection while one is, for instance, travelling by air. There was a letter to the editor suggesting that astatin-based nasal spray or mouthwash might help. A xylitol and grapefruit seedextract nasal spray could help COVID-19 patients.

Xlear is filing a Pre-Emergency Use Authorization (Pre-EUA) Request with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The Pre-EUA is a first step in seeking authorization of Xlear Nasal Spray as a new hygiene tool to help in combat the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the virus that causes COVID-19.

In a study recently published in the European Respiratory Journal, the drug, known as INNA-X, is shown to be effective in a pre-clinical infection model and in human airway cells. “Consistent with what we have reported for other respiratory viruses including SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19), INNA-X treatment prior to infection reduced the level of virus in the respiratory tract,” Associate Professor Bartlett said.

Ibuprofen and other widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may inhibit antibody production in human cells.(non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs).

Oats may be immunomodulatory.

Omega-3/omega-6 fats ratio vs auto-immune diseases.

Oral health: periodontitis may increase the severity of a COVID-19 infection.

Elevated exposures in children to perfluorinated (PFAS) compounds, which are widely used in manufacturing and food packaging, were associated with lower antibody responses and more severe COVID-19 infections.

PFAS exposure is associated with decreased infant and fetal growth as well as decreased antibody response to vaccines in both adults and children.

Here are sources of PFAS. 

  • Stay away from stain-resistant carpets and upholstery, and don’t use waterproofing sprays.
  • Look for the ingredient PTFE or other “fluoro” ingredients on product labels.
  • Avoid nonstick cookware. Instead use cast-iron, stainless steel, glass or enamel products.
  • Boycott takeout containers and other food packaging. Instead cook at home and eat more fresh foods
  • Don’t eat microwave popcorn or greasy foods wrapped in paper.
  • Choose uncoated nylon or silk dental floss or one that is coated in natural wax.

Better Immunity  with a Plant-based diet

During the COVID-19 pandemic, it is very important to make a reasonable effort to choose a balanced diet, consuming fruits and vegetables, undertake physical activities during leisure hours, strive to sustain a proper weight, and get enough sleep.

Good nutrition is important for immunity. High vitamin A, E, and D intake may be linked to fewer respiratory complaints in adults. The high rate of consumption of diets high in saturated fats, sugars, and refined carbohydrates (collectively called Western diet – WD) worldwide, contribute to the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, and could place these populations at an increased risk for severe COVID-19 pathology and mortality. WD consumption can induce a lipotoxic state. This triggers activation of canonical inflammatory signaling pathways that produce proinflammatory mediators and other effectors of the innate immune system and impairs adaptive immunity, leading to chronic inflammation and impaired host defense against viruses. Furthermore, peripheral inflammation caused by COVID-19 may have long-term consequences in those that recover, leading to chronic medical conditions such as dementia and neurodegenerative disease, likely through neuroinflammatory mechanisms that can be compounded by an unhealthy diet. Thus, now more than ever, wider access to healthy foods should be a top priority and individuals should be mindful of healthy eating habits to reduce susceptibility to and long-term complications from COVID-19.

Good nutrition supplies Vitamins A, B6, B12, folate, C, D and E, trace elements including zinc, copper, selenium and iron, amino acids, and fatty acids. Cell-mediated immunity is affected by folate deficiency: the blastogenic response of T lymphocytes to certain mitogens is decreased in folate-deficient humans and animals. Leafy greens and beans are sources of dietary folate.

A whole-food, unprocessed, plant-based diet can reduce intestinal inflammation, improve immunity.

Consume a whole-food, varied, unprocessed, varied, plantbased (vegan) diet.

Include oatmeal and other whole (best intact) grains and coffee – prebiotics.

A plant-based diet can supply dietary (better than supplemental) fiber, and complex carbs. Dietary fiber is what nourishes good gut bugs. Eat like a rural African. Dietary fiber can boost immunity. Fiber beats probiotics. A high-soluble fiber diet (beans, for instance) will result in butyrate, as well as beneficial gut bugs.

Include dietary polyphenolscolorful fruits and veggies, spices, tea, and cocoa.

Cranberries are an excellent source of polyphenols.

A bit of (polyphenol-rich) red wine might help,

Consume adequate protein, to supply nitrogen.

Dietary sulfur is important: eat cruciferous veggies.

A whole-food plant-based diet is more effective than probiotics.

Eat asparagus– a prebiotic.

Kale (cooked is best) is a cruciferous veggie that also causes immunoglobulin (Ig) production stimulating activity in human hybridoma HB4C5 cells and human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

Gold kiwi fruit for the common cold?

Fermented foods via D-phenyllactic acid (D-PLA), vs. upper respiratory infections. Fermented foods feature lactic acidbacteria, suchas in raw sauerkraut.

 A whole-food plant-based diet to protect against viral infections:

Via a happier disposition (evidence here)

Capsaicin (hot peppers: “In spleen cells of mice fed 20 ppm CAP (capsaicin) there was a greater T-cell mitogen induced, lymphocyte proliferative response. In addition, the number of antibody-producing B cells and serum IgG and IgM levels increased in mice fed 20 ppm CAP as compared to the control with no CAP.

Carotenes boost natural killer (NK) cell activity  and reduce chronic inflammation (best from dietnot from supplements).

Vialymphoid cells (ILCs).

Via lower chronic inflammation by increased antioxidants and dietary polyphenols.

Green veggies will provide lutein

A plant-base diet versus lupus.

A plant-base diet versus autoimmune diseases

Soluble fiber abundant in citrus fruits, apples, oats, barley and legumes may help fight inflammation.

Blueberriesnincrease natural killer cell counts. Red grapes and blueberries may enhance immune function.

Plant-based immune-boosting nutritional goodies include beta-carotene, vitamin A,vitamin C, vitamin K, and vitamin E. Also curcumin, cinnamaldehyde, probiotics, selenium, lactoferrin, quercetin. Supplemental quercetin may be prophylactic vs. COVID-19 infection. Quercetin, as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic and inflammatory compound, is probably a potential treatment for severe inflammation and one of the main life-threatening conditions in patients with COVID-19.

Less pathogenic  bugs in the gut.

Plant fiber for short-chain fatty acids: SCFAs influence gastrointestinal epithelial cell integrity, glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism, appetite regulation, and immune function. Akkermansia muciniphila gut bugs, increased by a highfiber diet and dietary polyphenols. Plant-based fiber vs. gut infections.

Include cooked tomatoes and other veggies.

The mechanisms by which each of the nutrients named above support the immune system include the strengthening ofinnate immune responses and antioxidant systems. …eating well and keeping a healthy weight will help the immune system cope better with the demands placed on the body before, during and after COVID-19 infection.

The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2) is a facilitator of amino acid transport, and the SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 receptor. ACE converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II but ACE2 catalyses the conversion of angiotensin II to angiotensin and is also the main entry point for coronavirus 2 into cells. Dietary patterns have a strong effect on ACE levels. A high-saturated fat diet increases ACE. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2) is a facilitator of amino acid transport, and the SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 receptor. ACE converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II but ACE2 catalyses the conversion of angiotensin II to angiotensin and is also the main entry point for coronavirus 2 into cells. Dietary patterns have a strong effect on ACE levels.

This  prospective cohort study of 592,571 participants showed that a diet characterised by healthy plant-based foods was associated with lower risk and severity of COVID-19.

In six countries, plant-based diets or pescatarian diets were associated with lower odds of moderate-to-severe COVID-19. These dietary patterns may be considered for protection against severe COVID-19.

In any case, one should avoid the western diet.

Fatty food can weaken the immune system. Fatty food injures via an unhealthygut microbiome. A reduction in total fat intake has been found to enhance immune response (IR) in humans. Saturated fat may be especially worth avoiding. Saturated fat may inhibit T cell proliferation, inhibit lymphocyte proliferation, and decrease T helper and increase T suppressor/cytoxic cell proliferation. Gram-negative gut bacteria are troublesome and drug-resistant, so avoid obesity, and avoid a high-fat (fast food) diet. boosted.

Increased consumption of highly processed foods, which appear to be having an increased content of fat, sugar, and salt, can have a detrimental impact on the immune system, the overall physical and mental health, and the global well-being of individuals.
Eating a high-fat, high-sugar western diet causes damage to Paneth cells, immune cells in the gut that help keep inflammation in check. When Paneth cells aren’t functioning properly, the gut immune system is excessively prone to inflammation, putting people at risk of inflammatory bowel disease and undermining effective control of disease-causing microbes.
People who consume sugar and other simple carbohydrates in excess over a long period of time have an increased risk of developing an autoimmune disease. In affected patients, the immune system attacks the body’s own tissue and the consequences are, for example, chronic inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, type 1 diabetes and chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland.
When a plant-based diet is combined with fried food, sweets, refined grains, red meat and processed meat, benefits are diminished, with increased risk of severe COVID-19.

Pets can get COVID-19. For example, hamsters. Also dogs and cats.

Phthalates, acting as endocrine disruptors, can weaken immunity. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer which depressed T cell-mediated immunity in mice.

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) can cause immune problems.

A positive mental attitude for better immunity.

Prebiotics may improve the immune system, by increasing the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, while reducing the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines.

β2-1 fructans may have beneficial effects upon immune function.

Prebiotics may improve cold and influenza symptoms.

Preservatives widely used in processed foods can weaken the immune system.

Propolis may be immunomodulatory.

Propolis versus influenza

Eat adequate protein, but not much more than 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight.

Restaurant employees often fail to wash their hands. Food at highly rated restaurants can be a source of Staphylococcus aureus.

Excessive salt consumption → autoimmune diseases.

Less salt vs. non-communicable diseases.
Less salt for better immunity. Too much salt can severely disrupt the energy balance in immune cells and stop them from working properly.

A gel hand sanitizer may useful when travelling by air.

Some studies have shown that selenium enhanced immune competence and resistance to viral infections and in animal models and human studies. Selenium may also slow down an immune over-response, which may be useful in avoiding excessive inflammation when sick. In the United States, selenium deficiency is rare.
Some dietary sources of selenium are rice, beans, whole grains, garlic and brazil nuts. Western soil tends to be rich in selenium.
Diabetes caution when supplementing selenium.

Senolytics reduce coronavirus-related mortality in old mice.

Sex keeps the immune system humming. Masturbation improves immune functioning by increasing cortisol levels, which can regulate immune functioning in small doses. Orgasms, by any means.

Silicon may benefit the immune system, and may have a modulating effect on the immune or inflammatory response.

Dietary sources of silicon are barley, oats, whole wheat, nuts, dried fruit, bananas, root vegetables, spinach, and red lentils.

Sirtuins are signallingproteins that are anti-viral: All sirtuins are associated with fasting, exercise, and a low-calorie diet.
Sirt3 responds to caloric restriction (CR), fasting, and exercise.

Polyphenols and intermittent fasting will upregulate sirtuins. Intake of dietarypolyphenols including curcumin, may increase SIRT1 activity. (Supplementing with resveratrol is not recommended).
Sirt1 is dependent on NAD+: Exercise restores levels of NAMPT andNAD+.
Exercise training may enhance SIRT1 longevity signaling.
SIRT1 has been associated with a lowcaloriediet, glucose restriction, and intermittent fasting.
DHA, from fish oil might also increase SIRT1 activity.
Endogenous or supplemental (in rats) melatonin may increase SIRT1 activity.
SIRT6 could act as a master regulator of immune cell metabolism and function by regulating critical signaling pathways.
Calorie restriction, exercise, fisetin, fucoidan, luteolin, and egothioneine will cause Sirt6 expression.

Sinus infections can be bacterial or viral, regardless: antibiotics will probably not help.

Quality sleep benefits immunity: The induction of a hormonal constellation that supports immune functions is one likely mechanism underlying the immune-supporting effects of sleep. This is how much one should sleep.Shown by a study of 164 healthy men and women.
If mice are any indication: quality sleep is beneficial.
Chronic sleep deprivation suppresses the immune system.
Sleep deprivation increasessusceptibility to the common cold.
Sleep may strengthen long-term memories in the immune system.
Reducing sleep duration to four hours results in a 70% reduction in natural killer cells.
nap may help if sleep is poor.


Be slim: Obesity has been an independent risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality following infection with the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus. Obesity might promotes immunological decline through several mechanisms, with dysfunctional adipose tissue as a driving factor. Now we have data that obesity markedly increases the risk of death and disability from COVID-19. Obese COVID-19 patients were more than twice as likely to require hospitalization than non-obese patients, about 1.75 times more likely to require a stay in an intensive-care unit, and 1.5 times more likely to die. Severe forms of COVID-19 are associated with high visceral adiposity in European adults. On the basis of an exploratory analysis ACE 2 in the visceral fat may be a trigger for the cytokine storm. This report lists the reasons why obesity, including (merely) overweight, is such a COVID-19 hazard. High uric acid may be one reason why the obese are at more serious risk of COVID-19.

Consider all of the references here. Anybody who is obese really needs to be vaccinated and shed a few pounds. Obesity may prolong a battle with SARS-CoV-2, because the obese suffer from higher viral load. SARS-CoV-2 infection induces neutralizing antibodies in all lean but only in few obese COVID-19 patients. Obese people have a tougher time fighting COVID-19, even if they have a milder form of the virus. Infected body fat could contribute to “long COVID,” which has led to symptoms that last for weeks or months after someone has recovered from a coronavirus infection.

One study showed that the obese may be 46% more likely to contract COVID-19. People with obesity who contracted SARS-CoV-2 were 113% more likely than people of healthy weight to land in the hospital, 74% more likely to be admitted to an ICU, and 48% more likely to die. Researchers studying young obese mice found that expression of ACE2, a receptor in host cells that binds to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is higher in the lungs and trachea of obese mice. The finding could partly explain why obesity is a high-risk factor for COVID-19. Those who are obese suffer decreased interferon-α and interferon-β production.

This meta-analysis of 75 studies also shows that individuals with obesity were more at risk for COVID-19 positive, for hospitalization, for ICU admission, and for mortality. A major concern is that vaccines will be less effective for the individuals with obesity. Infected body fat could contribute to “long COVID,” which has led to symptoms that last for weeks or months after someone has recovered from a coronavirus infection.

Obesity, like other states of malnutrition, is known to impair the immune function, altering leucocyte counts as well as cell-mediated immune responses. Adipokines are crucial players not only in energy metabolism but also in inflammation and immunity, most of them being increased in obesity and contributing to the associated ‘low-grade inflammatory state’. There is a substantial impact that obesity has on immunity and pathogen defense, including the disruption of lymphoid tissue integrity, alterations in leukocyte development, phenotypes, and activity; and the coordination of innate and adaptive immune responses. Obesity is associated with alteration in cellular immunity in both animal and human studies. Dysregulation of leptin may also be a culprit. Obesity impairs the adaptive immune response to influenza virus. Vaccinated obese adults are twice as likely to develop influenza and influenza-like illness compared with healthy weight adults. Shedding just 10 pounds could straighten out an off-balance immune system.

Social Distancing

Social distancing at six feet or even 8 meters (a single virus particle can cause infection) during a pandemic is, of course, good advice: it worked well in Hong Kong. The Denver Post is also on board with 8 meters. Six feet is not enough, especially indoors. One does not need to cough or sneeze: aerosolization of virus from normal breathing or speaking will generate aerosols. Such small droplets can carry their viral content meters, even tens of meters, away from the infected person. The 6-foot social-distancing rule is based on nearly 80-year-old science. Small droplets were previously considered harmless, but this is clearly wrong,”Even when the water droplet has evaporated, an aerosol particle remains, which can contain the virus. This allows viruses to spread over distances of several meters and remain airborne for long time.”

Once inhaled, virus-laden aerosols can deposit in different parts of the respiratory tract. Larger aerosols tend to be deposited in the upper airway; however, smaller aerosols, although they can also be deposited there, can penetrate deep into the alveolar region of the lungs.

About 85 percent of coronavirus RNA detected in COVID-19 patients’ breath was found in fine aerosol particles less than five micrometers in size.

The risk of being exposed to Covid-19 indoors is as great at 60 feet as it is at 6 feet. Vigorous activity increases risk, and risk is dramatically reduced by the use of face masks.

Superspreading plays a dominant role in COVID-19 transmission, so that a small fraction of infected people causes a large proportion of new COVID-19 cases. Reducing random contacts—such as those that occur at sporting events, restaurants, bars, and the like—can control the outbreak at population scales.

Scientists at MIT and Oxford have created a traffic-light system to use instead. If you double your distance, you generally double your protection. Dining is restaurants is risky. Lockdowns have worked well to lower the rate of infections. The harm caused by lockdowns is less than the harm caused by COVID-19. Dr. Fauci thinks that we should never shake hands again. Infected runners and bike riders can leave a “slipstream” of virus-laden droplets behind. But covid-19 transmission outdoors may be rare, but still dangerous, so wear a mask and be distant outdoors. Sars-CoV-2 can be spread by asymptomatic people and also before symptom onset. Super-spreading events are especially important in understanding COVID-19 spread.

Social distancing and mask wearing have made influenza much less of a problem. Likewise, acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is also declining. Lessons from the 1918 pandemic have been ignored. COVID-19 spreads by breathing.

Longer time spent at home during COVID-19 pandemic is associated with binge drinking among US adults. Increased alcohol use among women, especially, has become a worse problem. Many have found gardening to be a respite to social isolation.

Absent a pandemic, being social, may provide more resistance to infection. Social isolation may increase stress, which slows the body’s immune response and ability to heal quickly. Loneliness, like chronic stress, taxes the immune system. Never before have we experienced social isolation on a massive scale as we have during the evolving COVID-19 pandemic. A new paper published in the journal Trends in Cognitive Sciences explores the wide-ranging, negative consequences that social isolation has on our psychological well-being and physical health, including decreased life span. The journal New Scientist calls it social capital.

Smoking tobacco reduces immunity. Smoking tobacco is associated with an increased risk of worse COVID-19 symptoms including long COVID. Tobacco smoking increases lung entry points for COVID-19. Smoking tobacco is predictive of severe COVID-19. Any kind of smoke will reduce immunity, or cause autoimmunity E-cigarettes and vaping will also weaken immunity.

Spermidine has been shown to reverse the senescence of old human B cells.

Minimize consumption of simple carbs (which quickly turn to that horrible evil sugar) – including orange juice.

Sugar is a simple carb.

Do not trust LED-based “UV” sterilizers.

Stevia may aid immunity, and may be immunomodulatory, but dot not consume too much.

Chronic stress

Minimize chronic stress: Long-term stress suppresses or dysregulates innate and adaptive immune responses by altering the Type 1-Type 2 cytokine balance, inducing low-grade chronic inflammation, and suppressing numbers, trafficking, and function of immunoprotective cells. Chronic stress results in glucocorticoid receptor resistance (GCR). Those with GCR were at higher risk of subsequently developing a cold. Greater GCR also predicted the production of more local proinflammatory cytokines among infected subjects..

Chronic stress dampens the natural killer cell response.

Chronic stress→ chronicinflammation.

Chronic stress→ autoimmune diseases.

But some stress is good.

Stress, sleep deprivation, and loneliness all compromise immunity via inflammation.

Researchers have found that, while participants in general report greater stress levels during the pandemic, individuals with a harmony-with-nature worldview were coping better regardless of whether they lived in Japan or in the United States.

The damaging effects of chronic stress can be fixed with moderate exercise and dietary polyphenols.


Moderate sun exposure (which also benefits autoimmune diseases via ultraviolet light) will help immunity, perhaps independent of vitamin D. Sun exposure, sans vitamin D, vs. COVID-19.

Sun exposure boosts infection-fighting T cells, independently of vitamin D synthesis. T cells may help against new COVID variants.

Sun exposure versus influenza, pneumonia, autoimmune diseases:

In the above sun exposure studies, blood levels of vitamin D is indicative of sun exposure, but vitamin D may not be the only active principle. Sun exposure also energizes infection-fighting T-cells. Short-term effects of excessive sun exposure are immunosuppressive for a period of at least three days, but long-term, sun exposure is supportive of immune function via ultraviolet light. My feeling is that if one limits daily sun exposure to 10-15 minutes (in summer – more in winter) one can avoid the short-term immunosuppressive effect and still enjoy the long-term immune-boost. Sunburn trashes the immune system and, of course, can cause skin cancer.

Near-infrared radiation can, due to it’s longer wavelength, penetrate deep into the skin, even through clothing. This increases the production of mid-day melatonin which will quench the oxidative stress that is otherwise seen by the mitochondria when sick with viral illness including COVID-19. This melatonin also upregulates gluthione peroxidase, another important endogenous antioxidant.

Melatonin produced in this way acts differently from melatonin produced by the pineal gland in the evening hours in response to dim light.

Angiotensin-II which is a pro-oxidant, is converted into angiotensin-1,7 which is anti-oxidant. The enzyme that does this is ACE-2. This is the same ACE-2 that is the receptor for the spike protein. Infection with SARS-CoV-2 knocks out the ACE-2 enzyme by binding to it, resulting in an increase in angiotensin-II and a decrease in angiotensin-1,7, increasing oxidative stress. This is why both day and night-time melatonin is so important.

Roger Seheult, MD explains the importance of the innate immune system versus the BA.5 variant that blows past prior infection and vaccination (though it helps reduce mortality). He goes on to explain that exposure to heat (especially) and cold will rev up the innate immune system. Finally, he goes over data on the importance of sun exposure, independent of vitamin D synthesis. 

Some substances can, when ingested, act to prevent the short-term immunosuppressive effect of sun exposure. Green tea, grape seedextract and silymarin may help.

Sun exposure may exacerbate HPV infection.

Public swimming pools can be hazardous, especially hot tubs.

The food additive tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) (in fast food) may suppress the immune system.

Take care of your throat and everything that supports the self-cleaning powers of the respiratory tract.

Travelling safely.

Tuberculosis and other vaccinations boosts other forms of immunity. TB vaccine vs. other infectious diseases.

Why Vaccinate?

Dr. Mike Hansen explains the scary nature of the Delta variant and argues for vaccination.

The rules change because the science, and the pandemic situation, is dynamic.

Vaccinations, save lives, and are not an autoimmune concern. Flu vaccines carry a killed, or dead, version of the virus. In turn, the body mounts an immune response, but the vaccine cannot cause the flu because the virus is killed. Despite modest effectiveness, the flu vaccine is worth getting. Vaccination is a social responsibility.

One immediate problem with vaccinations is anxiety. As of April 30, the CDC reports that 64 people affected either fainted or reported dizziness. Some got nauseous or vomited, and a few had racing hearts, chest pain or other symptoms.

Vaccine hesitancy is due to lots of reasons, which must be respected. In countries with a high aggregate level of trust in science, people are more likely to be confident about vaccination, over and above their individual-level scientific trust. Here is a history of vaccine hesitancy.

Side effects to vaccines can be split in to general reactions to the vaccine system and COVID specific reactions. mRNA (messenger RNA) vaccines are likely to have less general problems by their nature – COVID specific problems are likely to be similar.” Nucleic acid vaccines are superior to subunit vaccines in both cellular and antibody response. Antibodies elicited by mRNA vaccines are more specific, more abundant, and more durable than injecting viral proteins directly. The vaccine appears to be equally effective regardless of recipients’ age, sex and ethnicity, according to BioNTech. The coronavirus vaccine doesn’t cause Alzheimer’s or ALS.

The placebo effect typically refers to beneficial effects of a drug that derive from the recipient’s expectations of its effects rather than its biochemistry. The effect can also work in reverse, causing adverse effects comparable to known effects, a phenomenon called the “nocebo” effect. 76% of reported side effects may be due to ‘nocebo’ effect

Research shows vaccines are working well at preventing hospital admissions in UK. But, according to the NY Times, the Johnson&Johnson one-shot vaccine is less effective against the delta variant.

Israelis who recovered from COVID-19 and were vaccinated with a single dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine are far better protected against reinfection than those who only have natural immunity, a large-scale Israeli study found.

Research to date indicates that the Pfizer vaccine is safe for those who are eligible for it. Its manufacturers developed the vaccine according to international safety standards, and the FDATrusted Source and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) have authorized it. Pfizer’s Phase 3 results on thousands of volunteers have additionally undergone external peer review and been published in the New England Journal of Medicine. Each of these independent reviews was incentivized to identify problems, not to gloss them over. It’s also tremendously unlikely that all of them missed a problem related to safety and efficacy.

The Moderna and Pfizer vaccines are among the best vaccines ever created. Although there have been no rigorous studies about whether vaccinated people can spread the virus, experts say it would be surprising if they did. The vaccines are also incredibly effective in the rare cases when people catch Covid-19. Those people come down with only mild cases of the disease, a win in itself. Data from Israel again confirms the efficacy of the Pfizer vaccine.

The Moderna and Pfizer vaccines are “essentially 100 percent effective against serious disease,” Dr. Paul Offit, the director of the Vaccine Education Center at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, said. “It’s ridiculously encouraging.” The degree of protection (10-fold) associated with seropositivity (past infection) appears to becomparable to that observed in the initial reports of the efficacy of mRNA vaccines in large clinical trials. The Moderna (mRNA-1273) vaccine is good for at  leastsix months.

In this case-control study including 6,647733 veterans, 23% of veterans received at least 1 COVID-19 vaccination during the first 3 months of vaccine rollout. Vaccine effectivenes VE) against infection was estimated to be 95% for full vaccination; estimated VE against COVID-19-related hospitalization was 91%, and there were no COVID-19–related deaths among fully vaccinated veterans

Results from a large clinical trial in the United States and South America indicate that AstraZeneca’s COVID-19 vaccine, AZD1222, is well-tolerated and protects against symptomatic COVID-19 disease, including severe disease or hospitalization. Here is another similar report.

This study of 884,828 vaccinated individuals showed, again, the overwhelming safety of the COVID-19 vaccination.

The COVID-19 mRNA-based vaccination also appears to reduce asmptomatic infection by 80-90%. It also reduces viral shedding when breakthrough infections occur. Dangerous new variants also less likely to emerge with more widespread vaccination, especially when non-pharmaceutical interventions and transmission-reducing behaviours remain throughout the entire vaccination period.

Vaccines still work as shown by Our World in Data.

These vaccines’ development did not cut corners. Moderna’s and Pfizer’s compressed timeline reflects unique partnerships between industry, government, and academia, high levels of funding, and decades of previous research on mRNA vaccines, as well as countless individuals working day and night given the nature of the crisis. The development of those remarkable vaccines was, in fact, a multi-year effort. Here is how COVID-19 vaccine approval happens.

Sucralose is a standard ingredient in vaccines.

Coronavirus vaccines may also reduce asymptomatic disease transmission. People who receive two COVID-19 jabs and later contract the Delta variant are less likely to infect their close contacts than are unvaccinated people with Delta. Unfortunately, the vaccine’s beneficial effect on Delta transmission waned to almost negligible levels over time. In people infected 2 weeks after receiving the vaccine developed by the University of Oxford and AstraZeneca, both in the UK, the chance that an unvaccinated close contact would test positive was 57%, but 3 months later, that chance rose to 67%.

The Pfizer and Moderna vaccines work against coronavirus mutation in UK and S. Africa variants, but with less effectiveness against the S. Africa (B.1.351) variant or the Omicron variant. Having had, then recovered from COVID-19 may not provide immmunity to B.1.351 South Africa variant. Several recent studies have reported that post-infection immunity is long-acting, durable, and protective. Now the CDC says that vaccine boosters are effective against the Delta and Omicron COVID-19 variants.

Vaccination not only prevents serious illness and death. Evidence from Delta [variant outbreaks] says the vaccine helps prevent long COVID. I think this will be the case with Omicron.

Israel has been distributing boosters to its citizens since mid-July, and the evidence shows they are making a big difference in reducing breakthrough disease. At a meeting of the White House Covid response team on Thursday, Anthony Fauci highlighted a new study from Israel finding that a Pfizer booster shot reduced the risk of both infection and severe illness for people over age 60 by more than 10-fold. Breakthrough infections are growing concern.

Booster shots were amazingly effective in Israel: At least 12 days after the booster dose, the rate of confirmed infection was lower in the booster group than in the nonbooster group by a factor of 11.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.4 to 12.3); the rate of severe illness was lower by a factor of 19.5 (95% CI, 12.9 to 29.5).

Though booster jabs help prevent breakthrough infection, all is not lost if much time has passed since the booster, especially if a breakthrough infection happened. This is because COVID-19 vaccination followed months later by a breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection offers greater protection against the Omicron variant than do closely spaced vaccination and infection. When a person becomes infected months after vaccination, the antibodies that respond come from a new and improved batch made by long-lived cells that carry a memory of the pathogen. When the body encounters the pathogen again, these memory B cells are called back to duty and have a chance to refine the antibodies, providing better protection against subsequent infections. But he ability of some emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants to blunt the protective effects of antibodies means that additional immunizations may be needed to restore levels, especially if one has not experienced a breakthrough infection.

Get your vaccination/booster shot in the morning.

A major benefit of vaccination is that vaccination before or after SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to what is often called super-immunity if one does get infected with COVID-19.

Vaccines have fewer side effects than virtually any other drug you wouldn’t even think twice about taking. Whether you get a vaccine or an infection, you are getting genes injected into you.

The Pfizer vaccine is effective in children aged 12 to 15. In an elderly, diverse, high-comorbidity population, COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness against infection was substantially lower than younger people, but vaccine effectiveness against death was high.

It is unlikely that the rate of adverse effects for these novel vaccines is going to be anywhere near as high as the rate of adverse effects from infection with the virus. About allergic reactions: Dr. Peter Marks said that a chemical called polyethylene glycol (PEG) that (in the form of nanoparticles) is an ingredient in the Pfizer vaccine – as well as the Moderna vaccine “could be the culprit” causing the reactions. Long term complications of vaccines show up in a time span of a few months (8 weeks) rather than a few years. Even more rare (the estimate is one in a million) is an increased risk of developing autoimmune conditions that affect the nervous system, such as Guillain-Barre Syndrome.

There is no evidence that Pfizer’s COVID-19 vaccine causes Alzheimer’s disease.

Side effects appear to be more commonly reported in women than men. A study by CDC researchers shows that 78.7%Trusted Source of adverse event reports submitted during the first month of U.S. vaccination involved women. Reproductive hormones, such as estrogen and testosterone, may play a role in this sex discrepancy. A study Trusted Source in mice suggests that estrogen causes the body to generate more antibodies, leading to a higher immune response.

Most symptoms reported following covid-19 vaccines are likely caused by a nocebo effect rather than an immune response.

The experience in Norway again shows no deaths or brain damage from COVID-19 vaccines.

There is a decrease in vaccine effectiveness after month 4 after full vaccination” in US Veterans, age 65+. A US policy to change to boost at 4-5 months instead of 6 months would be wise in this age group.

Being vaccinated is not a license to act as if there is no pandemic.

Post-vaccination infections resulting in hospitalization or death typically happen in people who are over 65 and who suffer co-morbidities such as being immunocompromized, chronic pulmonary or lung disease, neurologic disease, kidney disease, liver disease, and cardiovascular or heart disease.

Videos of people experiencing severe neurological symptoms, including convulsions and difficulty walking, purportedly after receiving a COVID-19 vaccine, have surfaced on Facebook, YouTube and other social media channels. The millions of people watching these videos might conclude that the vaccine is either quite dangerous to produce such symptoms or that the people in the videos are faking their symptoms. Both conclusions are incorrect, according to neurologist and psychiatrist David Perez, MD, MMSc, director of the Functional Neurological Disorders Unit at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH).

Dr. Gregory Michael, 56, an OB-GYN at Mount Sinai Medical Center in Miami Beach, died after suffering a hemorrhagic stroke apparently resulting from a lack of platelets. The investigation into his death is continuing. At this point, there isno indication that the COVID-19 vaccination caused his low platelet count and his resulting death.

The Pfizer/BioNTech Covid-19 jab has no link to reported post-vaccination deaths and no new side effects, the EU’s medicines regulator has said based on the first data from the vaccine’s roll-out.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said at present it looks like anaphylaxis cases are occurring at a rate of about5.5 per 1 million vaccine doses given, though the agency cautioned that figure may change as the vaccination effort continues.

One of the challenges with having a discussion on vaccine risks vs. benefits is that often, people focus solely on adverse effects from the vaccine and forget to remember the adverse effects from the lack of vaccination. The risk of long-covid and post-infectious viral syndrome is vanquished with the vaccine versus acquiring immunity through being sick. Asymptomatic infections may also be prevented.

Vaccination of persons with known current SARS-CoV-2 infection should be deferred until the person has recovered from the acute illness (if the person had symptoms) and criteria have been met for them to discontinue isolation.

People with autoimmune disorders were included in the trials, and no increased flares were observed; there is also no potential for their increasing autoimmune disorders, long-term. (If anything, the risk of catching SARS-CoV-2, which causes massive interferon release, should be more concerning to those at risk of autoimmune disease.)

Imagine that a vaccine offers 90% protection: “If before the vaccine you met at most one person, and now with vaccines you meet ten people, you’re back to square one.” Herd immunity may be impossible.

Prior exposure to SARS-CoV-2 does not guarantee a high level of antibodies, nor does it guarantee a robust antibody response to the first vaccine dose. Blood samples from participants collected about three weeks after their second vaccine dose, the average level of inhibition was 98%, indicating a very high level of neutralizing antibodies. Prior exposure to SARS-CoV-2 does not guarantee a high level of antibodies, nor does it guarantee a robust antibody response to the first vaccine dose. COVID-19 mRNA vaccines are around five times more effective at preventing hospitalization than a previous infection.

Before Delta became the predominant variant in June, case rates were higher among persons who survived a previous infection than persons who were vaccinated alone. By early October (when Omicron started to predominate), persons who survived a previous infection had lower case rates than persons who were vaccinated alone. This was also shown be data from the Cleveland Clinic. Greater protection due to prior infection was also the case during the Delta wave of COVID-19 cases.

The immediate effects of the second COVID-19 vaccine jab may make some people feel unpleasant symptoms. This is not an indication of vaccine effectiveness.

Being vaccinated to stop the spread of COVID-19 will probably also reduce viral transmission. Trump’s science advisor says that getting the COVID jab is a social responsibility. Here is a great article on breakthrough infections.

Vaccines also benefit those who have been previously infected with COVID-19.

Taking over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen and ibuprofen before receiving a vaccine may reduce its ability to work and blunt your immune response to the vaccine. After the vaccination, don’t hesitate to take an over-the-counter medication if you have symptoms that make you uncomfortable.

Getting quality sleep after vaccination will allow the vaccine to instill immunity effectively.

Taking antibiotics may interfere with the action of vaccines.

Older individuals may increase vaccine effectiveness by consuming a plant-based diet or temporarily supplementing with vitamin E for a period of weeks before and after they receive the vaccine.Exercise will boost vaccine effectiveness.

Here is the awesome science of how the vaccine was first made. How to talk to a person with vaccine hesitancy.

Social psychologists know that, on the one hand, people are motivated to maintain consistency across their beliefs. Because people want their web of beliefs to be coherent, they tend to give a lot of weight to beliefs that are consistent with their overall worldview and to discount those that are contradictory. As a result, people will continue to hold on to a set of beliefs even in the face of mounting evidence that they should revise what they think.

The tendency toward consistency that people display – particularly in situations where they have expressed a strong preference – is most harmful in environments that change. The COVID-19 pandemic is just such a case.

This is why we need the vaccine. This is why COVID-19 vaccine manufacturers are shielded from vaccine injury liability.

Emerging data, including evidence of breakthrough infections, suggest that vaccine effectiveness might be reduced significantly against emerging variants of concern, and hence secondary vaccines will need to be developed to maintain population-level protective immunity.

Part of the problem is that coronaviruses replicate in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. “We have good circulation in our lungs and body, but not on the surfaces of our nostrils,” Dr. Slifka said. “We can block severe disease because there are antibodies in the lower respiratory tract.” But the risk of low-level infections in the upper respiratory tract can persist.

Dr. Kayee Tong, M.D. from University of Texas Medical Branch (Graduated 2020):

I’ll speak to my own experience. I got mine as soon as it was available to healthcare professionals. My teaching hospital has one of the only two University based BSL-4 labs in the nation. I’ve done infectious disease (ID) research with a NIH/NIAID grant before. Fair to say, I know a thing or two about vaccines and the potential long-term effects of getting COVID-19. I personally know many ID specialty MD/PhDs who can think for themselves. Not one refused the vaccine.

It was, arguably, vaccine nationalism that brought us the Delta variant the we a now suffering from. Massive numbers of new COVID–19 infections, not vaccines, are the main driver of new coronavirus variants. The vaccine hesitant endanger everyone else.

People who received the second dose 5 or 6 months ago do not have any neutralization ability against the omicron. While they do have some against the delta (strain). The good news is that with the booster dose it increases about a hundredfold. There is a significant protection via the booster (third) dose.

Most of the anti-vaccine content circulating online can be tied to 12 people, dubbed the “Disinformation Dozen”. The list includes Robert F. Kennedy Jr., Joseph Mercola, Ty and Charlene Bollinger, Sherri Tenpenny, Rizza Islam, Rashid Buttar, Erin Elizabeth, Sayer Ji, Kelly Brogan, Christiane Northrup, Ben Tapper and Kevin Jenkins. Now Joe Rogan is, officially, a covidiot.

Eight of history’s most misguided anti-vaxxers.

Since its inception in 1988, anti-vaccine groups (who have no medical expertise) have cherry-picked VAERS data and twisted it out of context to show the supposed dangers of vaccines. Now, with several COVID-19 vaccines being administered, and vaccine hesitancy and misinformation on the rise worldwide, VAERS is being used yet again by those same groups—as well as a crop of new bad actors—as a vehicle for claims that various vaccines cause serious side effects like Bell’s palsy, hospitalizations, or death. (A CDC review of safety data to date found this week that Bell’s palsy is no more common in COVID-vaccinated populations than unvaccinated; nor is the rate of death, or other severe health complications.) VAERS is a passive reporting surveillance system, and the people who submit to it can include doctors and healthcare providers, but also anyone who receives a vaccine, their family members, or even lawyers. (This is different from the CDC’s Vaccine Safety Datalink, which is limited to health care professionals, and requires more documentation for submissions.)

Because COVID-19 has been starkly politicized since the beginning of the pandemic, public health measures have become directly associated with the political left. Rejection of such measures has consequently become a signal of political and cultural identity.

Vacuum cleaner dust may be hazardous for those who are allergic and immune compromised.

Cooler temperatures can enable replication of the common cold virus, at least in part, by diminishing antiviral immune responses.

Stay hydrated (drink sufficient water) vs. the common cold. Staying hydrated can boost your immune health too. Water helps your body produce lymph, which carries white blood cells and other immune system cells. Try to avoid overdoing beverages that can make you dehydrated, like coffee. Or try eating more hydrating foods, such as cucumbers, celery or watermelon.

Environment trumps genes for immune health.

Those on the autistic spectrum need to try harder to stay healthy.

Treating COVID-19

If one tests positive for COVID-19 and is starting to feel sick, a pulse oximeter (inexpensive) is useful in monitoring the state of one’s illness. An oxygen saturation level between 95 and 97% is considered normal by the American Lung Association; anything below that would be a  reason to call a doctor, and anything under 90% would be a reason to go to the emergency room. Measurement using a  a pulse oximeter is useful in catching this problem of silent hypoxia (they are not very expensive). Consider contacting a hospital and requesting treatment with monoclonal antibodies. One may have to be persistant to arrange for such treatment.  Because COVID-19 damages via oxidative stress, melatonin, taken one hour before bed, may help. Mild fever enhances the interferon response so it should not be interfered with. Do not take ibuprofen or ketoprofen.

This study of 60 participants (25 women, 35 men; age range 21 to 85 years old), who had been admitted to the hospital based on a diagnosis of COVID-19 showed these participants had much less glutathione and more oxidative stress than the corresponding age groups without COVID-19. Because GlyNAC (combination of glycine and N-acetylcysteine) supplementation has been shown in clinical trials to rapidly improve GSH deficiency, OxS and oxidant damage, GlyNAC supplementation has implications for combating these defects in COVID-19 infected patients and warrants urgent investigation. Glutathione can also be increased by sulforaphane (from broccoli or, especially, broccoli sprouts). A combination of sprouts may provide even more sulforaphane – see sulforaphane, above.

COVID‐19 is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic abnormalities, including the deficiencies in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and glutathione metabolism. A mixture of combined metabolic activators (CMAs) consisting of glutathione and NAD+ precursors can restore metabolic function and thus aid the recovery of COVID‐19 patients. CMAs include l‐serine, N‐acetyl‐l‐cysteine, nicotinamide riboside, and l‐carnitine tartrate, a salt form of l‐carnitine. Nicotinamide mononucleide would probably worked as well as (or better than) nicotinamide riboside.

By Otto

I am a health enthusiast, engineer, and maker.

1 comment

  1. Hello! I could have sworn I’ve visited this blog before but after going through many of the posts I realized it’s new to me.
    Anyhow, I’m definitely pleased I found it and I’ll be book-marking it and checking back frequently!

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