Cancer causative stuff

Common Stuff that Causes, and Increases the Chance of, Cancer

Here are seven dietary factors that may increase the risk of cancer.

abdominal fat

acetaminophen (Tylenol, paracetamol):

shown by the VITAL study of 62,841 men and women aged 50 to 76 years

may increase the chance of liver cancer

may increase the chance of blood cancers

N-acetylcysteine has accelerated the spread of skin cancers in mice


where it is:

carbohydrate-rich foods

french fries

potato chips

even coffee

injures via inflammation, thus causing multiple cancers

acrylamide can bind to DNA, thus causing multiple cancers

→ breast cancer

→ ovarian cancer

→ prostate cancer

McDonald’s is behaving badly

advanced glycation end products (see Avoiding Parkinson’s for more information)

air fresheners:

Ozone reacts with fragrance molecule to produce formaldehyde.

Air fresheners could cause cancerous DNA mutations.

“Green” and “organic” air fresheners can emit hazardous air pollutants.

Who wants to breathe organic compounds, benzene, fomaldeyde, and phthalates?

air pollution is bad newsbroccoli sprouts to the rescue?

barbecuing, including tailgating, is hazardous

aflatoxin (from improperly stored peanuts and soybeans)

may cause liver cancer, especially dangerous for hepatitis patients

alcohol is a significant carcinogen and a cocarcinogen – even one drink per day

Globally, an estimated 741,300 of all new cases of cancer in 2020 were attributable to alcohol consumption.

maybe use a smaller wine glass

best consumed with food, more

cannabis to the rescue?

causes breast cancer even one drink/day- wow!

colon cancer

→ colorectal cancer via the ethanol-mediated TGF-β/Smad/Snail axis

esophageal cancer – injures via acetaldehyde

gastric cancer

causes liver cancer

alcohol in mouthwash may cause oral cancer

oral cancer, even with light drinking

→ skin cancer – melanoma

there is no safe level of alcohol

alcohol, processed meat, and obesity may cause stomach cancer

exercise may help

aldehydes from frying with corn, sunflower, of safflower (rapeseed) oil are bad news

alkylphenols – found in plastic, chicken, and especially fish

aloe whole leaf extract?

alpha-linolenic (ALA; 18:3n-3) fats may increase the chance of prostate cancer

sources from the above are meat, and dairy – the “complete” animal protein may actually be the culprit

androstenedione (which is an androgen) → high IGF-1 cancer

Androgen therapy (testosterone is also an androgen) can worsen prostate cancer.

animal origin fats, proteins, and sugars → pancreatic, bladder cancer (includes milk and eggs!)

combined with low fiber → colon cancer

Antibiotics might increase the risk of colon and rectal cancer.

Antioxidant supplements may promote cancer:

Cancer cells already have more antioxidants than normal cells, so antioxidant pills act opposite to most cancer therapies which are based on oxidants.

Antioxidant pills can accelerate the spread of malignant melanoma.

Antioxidant pills can act as pro-oxidants which may damage DNA.

Antioxidant pills may injure via prolonged activation of the nuclear factor E2.

Sahlgrenska Academy has found that antioxidants double the rate of metastasis in malignant melanoma.

Antioxidant pills/powders increase the rate of a variety of skin cancers.

Beta-caroten supplements →lung cancer.

Folic acid supplements →colon polyps →colon cancer.

Aristolochia sp. found abundantly in Chinese medicine.

Arsenic: increases the chance of multiple cancers. Arsenic is not just considered to be a carcinogen; it’s also designated as a “nonthreshold carcinogen, meaning that any dose, no matter how small, carries some cancer risk”—so there really isn’t a “safe” level of exposure.

Arsenic is in chicken due to arsenic-based drugs.

Arsenic is in drinking water: RO filtration can help – a little.

Arsenic is in rice (especially brown rice, rice milk, rice cereal, rice bran, and it’s syrup American, especially California rice is lowest. How to remove arsenic while cooking rice.

Lundberg is the lowest in arsenic among American rice,

The problem with arsenic in rice is that it is mostly inorganic: the most toxic form

Arsenic is even in plants fertilized with chicken manure!

Rice has no unique health benefits over other whole grains,


Arsenic is also high in hiziki seaweed.

Turmeric to the rescue?


asbestos, more


aspartame (Nutrasweet):

The cancer causative potential of aspartame was demonstrated in rats and mice. But this meta-analysis implies that the cancer concern is overblown.

brain cancer

may cause leukemia

→ liver cancer


→ multiple myeloma

→ urinary tract cancer

B vitamin supplement overdosing

beer → breast cancer – due to hops and alcohol

benzene, more (in gasoline commercial carrot juice, ground beef, and carbonated beverages.

potassium benzoate, sodium benzoate (both plus vitamin C)

BHA, more (butylated hydroxy anisole)

maybe not: it may protect against carcinogenesis (in mice)more

and BHT

bile acid – produced in response to eating animal fat

reduced re-absorption via steamed veggies

bisphenol A:

BPA messes with the epigenome.

Heat causes BPA leaching into water;

BPA can migrate into water even without heat.

Minimize canned foods, dental sealants, register receipts, adult toys and jellies.

One canned food per day vs. none was associated with 24% higher urinary BPA concentrations. ≥2 canned foods per day vs. none was associated with 54% higher urinary BPA concentrations.

Polycarbonate and even metal bottles can be a source of BPA.

BPA-free can linings are not better

a plant-based diet is best for lowering phthalate exposure

BPA is a phthalate, all of which are bad. Sources include:

fresh fish

food packaged in cans

cheese products and other milk products

plastics that contact food

flexible PVC products such a garden hoses

recycled plastics

plastic toys

wood finishes and detergents

personal care products

air fresheners

BPA is linked to breast cancer

BPA is linked to liver cancer

BPA is linked to prostate cancer

Break a sweat to eliminate ingested BPA.

Eating soy may also help.

high blood sugar:

shown by a study of 33,293 women and 31,304 men

→ colorectal cancer

→ lung cancer

pancreatic cancer

→ brain cancer

a tight bra → breast cancer

white bread

breast density caution

breast implant caution

potassium bromate – found in commercial baked goods

cadmium: (see Long-term Cognition post for more on cadmium)

injures via p62 and Nrf2 overexpression

causes hormonal cancers:

breast cancer

→ endometrial cancer

prostate cancer

most dietary cadmium can be avoided with a plant-based diet

eat cilantro (coriander, or Chinese parsley)

garlic might also help

a plant-based diet can help detoxify mercury, lead, and cadmium

excessive calcium supplementation→ polyps in the colon?→ colorectal cancer

excessive caloric intake (the opposite of calorie restriction)

Candida albicans fungal infection

Cannabis smoke is a concern: it really is best to use a vaporizer: it is more economical

but the effect is slight: studies are mixed

THC suppresses the growth of lung cancer cells

A 400-page analysis of 10,000 scientific studies concluded that “Cannabis and cannabinoids use is not linked to cancers that arise from smoking, such as lung and neck cancers. However, smoking may increase respiratory problems, like chronic phlegm, if it’s done on a regular basis.”

cannabis is possibly causative of testicular cancer in young men

dabbing cannabis (using butane) releases carcinogenic chemicals

caramel coloring in sodas

may be causative of testicular cancer (young men are most vulnerable)

Excessive dietary carbs: especially simple and refined carbs increase the chance of cancer.

Excessive carbs can injure via altered gut microbiota.

Carb-rich Western diet meals can directly promote tumor cell proliferation via the insulin/IGF1 signaling pathway.

Excessive carbs increases the chance of breast cancer.

Excessive carbs increases the chance of colon cancer.

Carrageenan was worrisome in lab animals.

Cat poop: Exposure to Toxoplasma gondii, which reproduces in cats and most often spreads to humans through raw meat, may increase the risk of brain cancer.

cell phone radiation (weak)

28% higher chance of salivary gland tumors

cheese: as bad as smoking

common every-day chemicals

chicken dosed with arsenic drugs, even occupational exposure to poultry

multiple myeloma

grilled chicken is the most carcinogenic

Chicken is the meat most likely to cause lymphoma, more than processed meat or beef.

child abuse

chlorinated drinking water (weak)

bad (LDL) cholesterol breast cancer, prostate cancer, other cancers ,cancer metastasis

carnitine and choline  via TMAO in meat and in eggs

better sources of choline

Research has linked more than 200 commercial chemicals to the risk of developing breast cancer.

None of those chemicals are listed on the National Cancer Institute website.

chlamydia infection

Dietary cholesterol→ multiple cancers.

A study of 47,896 men showed that choline (food or supplements) intake was associated with an increased risk of lethal prostate cancer.

chondroitin (a popular joint supplement) may speed the growth of melanoma


hexavalent chromium

Circadian clock disruption (probably via messing with melatonin and human period 2 protein)

Several molecular gears constituting the clock machinery have been found to establish functional interplays with regulators of the cell cycle, and alterations in clock function could lead to aberrant cellular proliferation.

Circadian clock disruption injures via increased expression of a cell-cycle control protein called cyclin D. Circadian rhythms (or lack thereof) of host organisms appear to dictate tumour growth and proliferation. Tumorigenesis can occur with the loss of a maintained circadian rhythm and lead to an increased risk for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, breast cancer, and metastatic colorectal cancer.

The often-reported association between light-at-night, melatonin suppression and increased cancer incidence may well be a result of the accompanying perturbed mitochondrial physiology.

A study of 2,000 adults in Barcelona and Madrid revealed that blue light at night increased the chance of colorectal cancer.

A study of 4,000 people between 20 and 85 years of age showed that night time blue light exposure increased the chance of breast and prostate cancer.

see the shift work caution, below

see the longevity post for circadian rhythm information

cleaning products caution


contraceptive pills

non-stick cookware – see microwave popcorn, below

copper caution: especially copper-containing supplements

Copper is required for the secretion of several angiogenic factors by tumor cells.

Copper plays an important role in promoting physiological and malignant angiogenesis.

Copper may increase the chance of colorectal cancer.

Copper may increase the chance of liver cancer.

many cosmetics


E-cigarettes contain up to 10 times the level of cancer-causing agents in regular tobacco.

gum disease and oral cancer

E-cigarette vapor delivers formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.

also a source of heavy metals.

Not electromagnetic radiation such as from cell phones or microwave ovens.

excessive creatine

CT scans:

→ brain cancer, leukemia – 24% higher risk

→ breast cancer

a useful site: Choosing Wisely

dental x-rays may cause brain tumors (particularly for children)


Not deodorants.

depression – see the post here on Depression

Insulin resistance is bad news.

Type 2 diabetes especially promotes cancers of the liver, pancreas, endometrium, colon and rectum, breast, and bladder.

Type 2 diabetes + obesity causes 800,000 cancers worldwide.

type 2 diabetes drugs sitagliptin and exenatide

diesel exhaust, or any vehicle exhaust

1/2 of all soot particles inhaled get stuck in the lungs

dioxins found in meat, dairy and fish

licorice to the rescue? – but not too much!

vitamin E supplements, more


raises TMAO, which is a marker of an unhealthy diet and microbiome

damages via heterocyclic amines

eggs frequently have a carcinogenic retrovirus, more

eggs → bladder cancer

breast cancer via increased serum concentrations of free estradiol

colon/rectal cancer


ovary cancer

prostate cancer, more, more

strong electromagnetic fields, maybe not, maybe so

clear evidence found in male rats exposed to levels a bit higher than 3G

estradiol → male breast cancer – from meat, eggs, and dairy

estrogen found (naturally) in dairy, meat, and eggs is causative of breast cancer

lack of exercise

a high fat (fast food) diet, which typically has a lot of saturated animal fat

breast cancer

→ intestinal tumors

→ colorectal cancer

colon cancer

fire retardant chemicals

more prevalent in Americans than others around the world

salted, fresh, or smoked fish

Fish, in one study, caused breast cancer cells to grow.

A study of 23,693 postmenopausal women showed that higher intakes of fish were significantly associated with higher incidence rates of breast cancer.

fish oil supplements might increase the chance of prostate cancer

Fresh fish is problematic due to microplastic particles.

compact fluorescent bulbs


produced by e-cigarettes

deep fried foods

vitamin E supplements

estrogen found naturally in meat, dairy, and eggs

excessive fructose consumption (sugar is 1/2 fructose)

→ liver cancer

→ pancreatic cancer

intestinal cancer – in mice

but it has to be really excessive

folic acid supplements

Fruit juice → increased risk of colon cancer, liver cancer. breast cancer, and overall cancer.

fusobacterium – causes periodontal disease

glass fibers:

may cause lung cancer if inhaled

found in cigarette filters, insulation

A high glycemic index diet (avoid simple starches, sugar and bread) as shown by this 2019 meta-analysis.

glycidol, found mostly in palm oil

excessive dietary glycine? – mostly found in meat and fish

glyphosate, more (found in Roundup)

Glyphosate alone may not be so bad at low concentrations.

It is the additional chemicals in Roundup that may be more worrisome.

excessive green tea extract supplements

gum disease

Helicobacter pylori (causes ulcers – treated by antibiotics and with broccoli sprouts)

heterocyclic aromatic amines from well-done meat, eggs, cheese, and excessive creatine

chlorophyllin and Lactobacillus casei can detoxify HCAs

A high glycemic diet:

A low glycemic index diet was suggested by this meta-analysis.

→ breast cancer

shown in Italian women

shown in Mexican women

among postmenopausal women

→ endometrial cancer

→ pancreatic cancer

hot drinks, more, more, more

glyphosphate, more, more, more, more, more, more

see the Avoiding Parkinson’s post for countermeasures

alternatives: vinegar, more, more

Roundup residue found (at unacceptable levels) on GMO soy

refined grains

An unhealthy gut microbiome→ breast cancer.

See “gut” in this blog post.

high blood pressure, linked to colorectal cancer in women

a high-fat (as in fast food) diet aggressive prostate cancer

high homocysteine → colorectal cancer

High IGF-1, caused by consuming “complete proteins:

breast cancer:

IGF-1 is a point of convergence for major signaling pathways implicated in breast cancer growth.

possible synergistic effects with estrogen receptor (ER) activation

indicated by 17 studies of 4790 cases and 9428 matched controls

IGFBP-3 is associated with unfavorable breast cancer prognosis.

IGF-1 may need to be suppressed to give breast cancer treatment a chance.

The IGF-1 link to breast cancer was shown by a study of 206,263 women.

→ pancreatic cancer

prostate cancer

Caused by a high protein intake

Shown by a meta-analysis of 10,554 prostate cancer cases and 13,618 control participants

High IGF-1 causes cancer by inhibiting apoptosis, and by stimulating cell proliferation. It is a key regulator of cancer risk in humans, acting in a growth hormone independent manner. IGFs are important mitogens (causes cell division) in many types of malignancies. independent of age, lifestyle, and cancer history. IGF-1 and other growth factors are major regulators of all subsequent steps of tumor progression, namely clonal expansion, invasion across tissue barriers, angiogenesis, and colonization of distant niches.

Shown by 21 studies which included 3609 cases and 7137 controls.

Proven by studies of the Laron Dwarfs from Ecuador.

Avoid dairy , BCAAs, arginine, and high protein, especially of animal origin (which are also rich sources of methionine). Avoid too much soy, and any kind of highprotein diet. Beans, in moderation, may lower IGF-1. Plant protein is safer. Too much fat and refined carbs also raise IGF-1.

High IGF-1 also cause reduced lifespan in mice.

But high IGF-1 via exercise is a good thing.


Do intermittent fasting and a lowprotein plant based (vegan) diet

Shown by a study of 233 vegan men than in 226 meat-eaters and 237 vegetarians

Shown by a study of 292 British women, ages 20–70 years

Shown by a study of 29,017 postmenopausal Iowa women followed for 15 years

Shown by a study of 292 British women, ages 20–70 years

Shown by a study of 14 men age 60 +/- 3 years

A quality vegan diet also works via methionine restriction.

Include luteolin in your diet, and consume seaweed, peas.

Chronic inflammation → colon cancer.

First, transcription factors NF-κB and STAT3 that regulate expression of inflammatory gene products, have been found to be constitutively active in most cancers; second, chronic inflammation such as pancreatitis, prostatitis, hepatitis etc. leads to cancers; third, activation of NF-κB and STAT3 leads to cancer cell proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis; fourth, activation of NF-κB and STAT3 leads to resistance to chemotherapy and radiation, and hypoxia and acidic conditions activate these transcription factors. – see the Avoiding Inflammation post.




elevated insulin is hazardous – see the post on blood sugar


→ pancreatic cancer

hormone replacement therapy increases ovarian cancer risk

any substance that increases human growth hormone such as:

GABA, which may increase the chance of pancreatic cancer

repeated medical imaging

Chronic inflammation: (see the Avoiding Pain and Inflammation post) due to a refined diet.

→ colorectal cancer

This was shown by the Iowa women’s health study of 34,703 women, ages 55 to 69 years. This was also shown by a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies of colon cancer reporting heme intake included 566,607 individuals and 4,734 cases of colon cancer.

especially gut inflammation

high grade prostate cancer

injures via cancerous DNA mutations

injures via a dysfunction of tissue homeostasis and repair

injures via oxidative stress

Many cancers arise from sites of infection, chronic irritation and inflammation.

Inflammation affects immune surveillance of tumor cells.

lung inflammation → increased chance of metastasis

chronic skin inflammation → increased chance of skin cancer

Too much iron: wow! Ferritin level should be less than 50 ng/mL.

Too much iron increases the chance of colon cancer.

Especially problematic is heme iron (see the Avoiding Diabetes post for more on iron).

Ferric citrate and ferric EDTA (but not ferric sulfate) caused colon cancer in vitro

Too much of any iron supplement results in iron overload

late meals → increased chance of prostate and breast cancer

lead? – see the sex post for my experience with green tea extract

see this Long-Term Cognition post for lead countermeasures


→ breast cancer

→ endometrial cancer

be slim to minimize leptin


injures via chronic inflammation

→ breast cancer

night-time lighting, including night shift work, via messing with melatonin

lycopene supplements

mammograms may cause DNA damage: most risky for high-risk women

Meat: one of the leading lifestyle cancer risk factors. The buildup of industrial toxins in the meat and dairy supply may, in part, account for the relationship between animal fat consumption and disease.

especially red meat via TMAO-producing gut flora

especially processed meat (worse than red meat)

especially after cancer diagnosis

causes bowel/colon cancer

colon cancer risk increases 12% per 100 grams of processed meat

processed meat is likely the most risky

This is due to sodium nitrite→ N-nitroso compounds.

Another meat culprit is heme iron.

works via bad gut flora

works via excessive bile acids

works via protein fermenation

resistant starch might help (beans, or cool cooked starches)

can even affect the young

demonstrated by the UK Women’s Cohort Study of 32,147 women

bladder cancer

breast cancer

via increased serum concentrations of free estradiol and oestrogen

via mammary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)

via Zeranol, a potent hormone disruptor used in meat production

especially meat treated with Zeranol and other hormones

colon cancer

via high-risk colon polyps

via TMAO

endometrial cancer

glioma ( a form of brain cancer)

kidney cancer, via nitrosamines and nitrosamides

lymphoma, more

oral  and throat cancer

prostate cancer via alpha linolenic acid and Ω-6 fatty acids

skin cancer, including melanoma

even handling chicken! even chicken fumes!

especially preserved meat such as hot dogs – worse than smoking!

adding vitamin C (required by law) makes it worse!

One of the culprits in meat is heme iron.

another culprit is Phlp

curcumin to the rescue?

another culprit is bile acids→ gastrointestinal cancer

another culprit is slow colon transit time

another culprit is DNA damaging chemicals

another culprit is animal fat – see saturated fat, below.

another culprit is glycoproteins containing glycosidically linked Neu5Gc

another culprit is heme iron

another culprit is high IGF-1

another culprit is Neu5Gc: a sugar found in red meat

another culprit is N-nitroso compounds in processed meat

another culprit is non-human sialic acid

another culprit is animal protein

another culprit is polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

another culprit is poultry viruses

another culprit is polyoma viruses that can survive cooking and pasteurization

another culprit is industrial toxins

another culprit is Zeranol.

As bad as smoking.

Organic meat is not better!

Beef: it’s what’s rotting in your colon!

If one does eat meat, cook it at a low temperature (more), and consume some resistant starch.

Quorn, being a “complete protein”, may be similarly cancer causing.

The patronizing tone of government and public health advocates does not help!

metabolic syndrome or being type 2 diabetic or even being prediabetic

injures via DNA abnormalities

injures via high blood sugar

shown by 5 studies of 250,479 people

→ breast cancer

→ cancers of the digestive system

→ colorectal cancer

→ endometrial cancer

→ pancreatic cancer

shown by a study of 20,475 men and 15,183 women

shown by a study of 736 cases and 1875 controls

transition metals such as iron, nickel, chromium, copper, and lead

break a sweat to decrease heavy metal load 

avoid e-cigarettes

too much dietary methionine (mostly from animal foods)

Many human tumors require methionine to grow.

Excessive methionine may be linked to prostate cancer.

see long-term cognition post for methionine sites

2-methylimidazole (brown coloring in soda)

4-methylimidazole (brown coloring in soda), more, more

not microwaves, or microwave ovens

Milk: even low fat milk and, of course, cheese and yogurt is bad news:

prostate cancer – even organic milk

Dairy may injure via DNA damage.

Dairy may injure via 5alpha-pregnanedione (5α-P) present in milk.

Shown by a meta analysis of 32 studies.

Shown by a meta analysis of 11 case control studies.

Shown by a review of 42 meta analyses.

Demonstrated by the Physician’s Health Study of 20885 men.

“…the intake of dairy products should be reduced or minimized in mens’ diet”


breast cancer, via bovine leukemia virus

Dairy may injure via estrogens and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGTF-1).

→ endometrial cancer

→ oesophageal cancers

→ ovarian cancer

→ pancreatic cancer

testicular cancer (mostly affects young men): galactose is a culprit

Dairy injures via 5α-P.

Dairy injures via animal fat.

Dairy injures via hormonal interference

genetic manipulation has produce abnormally high hormone levels

Dairy injures via elevated IGF-1

Dairy injures via circulating steroid hormone concentrations

The dangers of dairy were shown by Dr. T. Colin Campbell, author or The China Study.

Nutritional yeast has a cheesy flavor.

skin creams containing mineral oil

mobile phone use? – probably not

lots of moles are not a concern, but a few irregular moles are

mosquito coil smoke

MTOR or MTORC1 activation:

The mTOR pathway communicates with the p53 pathway – not good. mTORC1 drives tumorigenesis by boosting translation of oncogenes, promoting anabolism and angiogenesis and suppressing autophagy. mTORC2 activates Akt and other AGC family kinases that promote cell proliferation and survival.

mTOR signaling increases tumor cell motility.

→ breast cancer


→ liver cancer

activated by: 

Arginine supplementation

human growth hormone therapy

green tomatoes


Leucine, glutamine and arginine have been widely shown as the main contributors to mTORC1 activation. Sestrin2 is a leucine sensor for the mTORC1 pathway.

Leucine is mostly found in foods of animal origin.

Overnutrition (eating too much)

Too much protein


inhibited by:

AMPK: AMPK is activated by:

Calorie restriction has been shown to suppress mTOR in mice and in nematodes. AMPK is an energy sensor.

AMPK is activated in skeletal muscle during exercise in an intensity-dependent manner.

Timerestricted feeding

a form of intermittent fasting

a form of temporary food deprivation

more AMPK information in the Longevity post

A plant-based diet will inhibit mTOR.

A low-starch diet will inhibit mTOR.

mycotoxins from moldy food

n-acetyl cysteine and vitamin E → accelerated lung-cancer growth (the dose makes the poison)

sodium nitrite (in processed meat)→ gastric cancer

lactic acid bacteria can deplete sodium nitrite

nitrosamines in second-hand smoke, third-hand smoke, and (red and cured) meat

n-nitrosodimethylamine found in cured meats, smoked fish, and cigarette smoke

lactic acid bacteria can detoxify n-nitrosodiumethylime


Fat fuels cancer’s spread in mice. Bigger bodies→ more cancers.

Obese women are 40% more likely to get cancer.

causes 800,000 or 4% of cancers worldwide

Shown by a meta analysis of 282,137 human cases.

Shown by the Million Women Study.

Obesity injures via dysfunctional adipose tissue.

especially fat around the middle

visceral fat→ FGF-2→ tumors

regardless of diet, but weight-loss surgery can help

via excessive IGF-1 and IGF-2

via chronic inflammation

via suppression of guardian immune cells

makes cancer cells more aggressive via increased angiogenesis

breast cancer, more, more

Breast tissue from obese women is stiffer which promotes cancer.

Small extracellular vesicles called exosomes shed from adipocytes carry molecular cargo that induce prometastatic changes in recipient breast cancer cells.

Visceral obesity, as assessed by computed tomography, was a significant risk factor for breast cancer in women matched for age, weight, and waist circumference.

colorectal cancer

exercise after weight loss for less risk

→ endometrial cancer

esophageal cancer, more

multiple myeloma

prostate cancer, more

especially visceral fat

→ 13 types of cancer, 11 types, eight more, 10 common cancers, all cancers

a plant-based diet may help

rancid oils

orange juice → melanoma risk?

organochlorine pesticide residues

see the Avoiding Diabetes post for avoiding these toxins

papilloma virus (causes warts also)

→ liver cancer

a high omega 6/omega 3 dietary fatty acid ratio (too much corn, safflower, sunflower, and soy oils)

injures via forming promutagenic exocyclic DNA adducts in human cells

→ breast cancer (mammary tumors)

Shown by a study of 11,699 women. may stimulate the growth and spread of tumors

Shown by a study of 2,074 Mexican women.

Shown by the Shanghai Women’s Health Study of 75,571 women.

→ prostate cancer

overeating→ breast cancer

oxidative stress – see the longevity post

Injures via chronic inflammation.

Injures via activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases.

Injures via activation of key transcription factors such as Nrf2 and NF-κB.

Increased by transition metals such as iron or copper.

oxidized/rancid oils:

Rancid oils are toxic to cells and genes.

→ may fuel the spread of liver cancer

Canola oil can oxidize when heated unless it is modified, but even oleic acid oxidizes.

Even the vapors are dangerous.

Opioid-based pain killers may stimulate the growth and spread of tumors.

poor oral health

Long-term use of pain killers such as non-aspirin NSAIDS may increase the risk of kidney cancer.

Glycidyl fatty acid esters from refining palm oil, used in Nutella, among other processed foods.

papilloma virus (causes warts also)

treat genital warts with green tea

PCBs in fish, dairy, meat, and eggs, and yellow pigments

perfluorooctanoic acid See Heart Health for additional information.

perfluorooctane sulfonate, more, more

pesticides – wash produce and/or eat organicallySee also bisphenol A (BPA) above.

m2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhlP) in meats and fish

not mobile phone use, except maybe for extreme use

Phthalates in meat and dairy

also fast food, household dust, perfumes, and medicine enteric coatings

See also bisphenol A (BPA) above.

pickled foodsgastric (stomach) cancer

esophageal cancer

multiple myeloma

heating foods in the microwave should not happen in plastic not intended for this purpose

polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

Women with detectable levels of PAH had a twofold association with breast cancer risk. The association increased with higher levels of PAH.

PAHs are endocrine disrupting chemicals that mess with the epigenome.

PAHs are abundant in vacuum dust.

from air pollution – works epigenetically

microwave popcorn:

Microwave popcorn bags are a source of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA).

PFOA disrupts hormones.

Diacetyl flavoring agent is also a suspected carcinogen.

potassium bromate in fast-food buns and brominated flour

Potassium bromate is llegal in China, the European Union, Canada, and Brazil.

poultry oncogenic viruses – can be got from slaughtering poultry

not overhead power lines

Avoid processed (energy dense) foods.

Shown by a study of 104,980 healthy French adults (22% men; 78% women.

A high-protein diet→ protein fermentation→ hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and p-Cresol→ colon cancer. Plant protein is OK.

putrescine from canned fish

incidental radiation – even tiny doses

radon gas

protracted exposure to low doses of ionising radiation

Red Dye No. 3 → DNA damage, thyroid cancer, and other cancers

in breakfast cereal, juice drinks, soda and ice cream

those with red hair are at increased risk of melanoma

Not root canal procedures.

Roundup herbicide – mostly due to chemicals other than glyphosate..

excessive salt consumption:

→ gastric (stomach) cancer: the fourth most common cancer

shown by a hospital based case-control study of 379 cases and 1137 controls

shown by a study of 11742 older men

saturated fat, of animal origin – due partly to phytanic acid

breast cancer, more, more

especially after cancer diagnosis

colorectal cancer

prostate cancer

selenium supplements:

prostate cancer

promiscuous oral sex → HPV infection → oral cancer (mostly applies to men)

shift work:

injures via circadian clock disruption

may cause breast cancer

may cause colorectal cancer

excessive sitting

→ cervical cancer

excessive sleep, and sleep apnea (being slim may help prevent sleep apnea)

chronic insomnia →  liver cancer

fireplace (wood) smoke→  lung cancer

Short-term exposure to high concentrations of smoke will not harm healthy people.

smoked foods, but not liquid smoke

two sodas per day

→  liver cancer

Sodium benzoate + vitamin C →  benzene – yikes!

sodium nitrite from bacon and other processed meats

→ colorectal cancer

→ gastric cancer

caution on cheap no-name spices in street vendor food

Splenda (sucralose)?

too much starch:

→ breast cancer

→ colon cancer – via elevated insulin

statin drugs:

→  bladder cancer

→  breast cancer

stresssee the Stress post)

→  breast cancer

via the ATF3 gene

shown by a study of 989 breast cancer patients

causes a a 30-fold increase in cancer spread in stressed mice

Excessive intake of sugar, (party due to the fructose fraction, but also glucose) or other simple carbs increases our risk of cancer. Our evolutionary past has instilled in us a natural craving for sugar can be especially dangerous with a mutated phosphoinositide-3-kinase, or PI3K enzyme. Fruit juice is also considered to be a sugary drink.

The sugar-fueled cancer concerns include:

bowel cancer

→ breast cancer

shown by a study of 4690 women

Sugar may hasten the spread of breast cancer to the lungs.

colon cancer

→ colorectal cancer

shown by a study of 506 patients and 673 controls

shown by a study of 1586 patients and 2485 controls

endometrial cancer

liver cancer

→ pancreatic cancer

shown by a study of 77,797 men and women

shown by a study of 532 cases and 1701 controls

→ prostate cancer

→ stomach cancer

insufficient sun exposure → pancreatic cancer

excessive sun exposureskin cancer, prevented only partially with sunscreen

including melanoma

a good sunscreen guide from EWG: avoid homemade sunscreens

alcohol + sun exposure → increased chance of melanoma

it’s complicated

green tea may help avoid sun-induced skin cancer

tanning dependence caution, especially for the young

UVB tanning is safer than UVA exposure

tanning beds are especially hazardous for the young

indoor tanning is dangerous for anyone

talcum powder?

dysfunctional telomeres:

dysfunctional telomeres destabilize cell DNA cancer

see the longevity post on telomeres

excess thyroid medication

smoking or vaporizing tobacco, still big

Smoking tobacco causes 40% of all cancers in America.

Smoking tobacco is the number 1 risk for lung cancer.

may cause squamous cell carcinoma

nicotine messes with pancreatic stellate cells

reducing smoking can also benefit

second-hand smoke causes cancer due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

Nitrosamines from third-hand smoke are also hazardous.

e-cigarette and second-hand e-cigarette smoke is hazardous

e-cigarettes are only a bit safer than cigarettes

including the latest from Philip Morris

“low tar” or “lite” is a cruel hoax

standardized tobacco packaging would help

titanium dioxide→ colon/colorectal cancer

Trimethylamine N-oxide, a gut microbiota-dependent metabolite of choline, is positively associated with the risk of primary liver cancer.

trans fats (partially hydrogenated oils), found in junk food and animal products,

→ breast cancer

→ colon cancer



a common component of soaps, deodorants, toothpastes, and other hygiene products at concentrations up to 0.3%

excessive (supplemental) tryptophan

styrene, more, more

cooking with unsaturated vegetable oils


not vasectomy

Viagra (sildenafil) → increased chance of melanoma

um (putting on my best Gilda Radner voice here): “never mind

dental x-rays?

wood dust, more

xenestrogens: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins and dibenzofurans, bisphenol A

→ breast cancer


shown by a study of 264 postmenopausal women aged 55 to 70 years

via activation of the mTOR pathway

via endocrine disruption

may affect three generations

especially during growth and adolescence

→ multiple cancers

firedried yerba mate

excessive zinc levels correlate with breast cancer

more cancer causes , dark-skinned people also get skin cancer

cancer warning signs

most melanomas grow as new spots, not on existing moles

By Otto

I am a health enthusiast, engineer, and maker.